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During the Chola Empire, the social structure was organized into a hierarchical caste system with distinct classes and castes. The society followed the varna system based on the ancient Hindu society, which included Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras, but now many sub-castes were formed on the basis of professions. Inter-caste marriages and the emergence of new castes further complicated the social fabric of the empire.

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Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social Status and Contradictions

Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social

Chola society during the medieval period witnessed a distinct social hierarchy and varying degrees of social status. At the top of the pyramid were the king, his ministers, and feudal lords, who enjoyed lives of luxury, residing in magnificent buildings and adorned with fine clothing and precious ornaments.

The merchant class thrived and emulated the opulent lifestyle of the elite. However, amidst this affluence, there existed a significant disparity in living standards.

The urban population generally experienced contentment, but a marginalized class faced economic challenges. The farming population endured simple economic conditions, burdened by taxes and susceptible to periodic famines. The social status of women declined, with restrictions on their freedom and limited educational opportunities.

Traditional practices like sati and Jauhar further impacted the lives of women. Overall, Chola society was characterized by a complex interplay of wealth, social divisions, and cultural practices, shaping the lives of its diverse population.

I. Social classes and castes


  • High position in society, similar to South India
  • Various groups existed within the Brahmin community
  • Monopoly on worship and religious rituals, religious rituals and temple priests were involved

Kshatriya (Rajput):

  • Kshatriyas were second in the social hierarchy
  • Duties include defending the country, governing, and fighting


  • Engaged in trade, shopkeeping, and agriculture
  • Considered part of the Dwija (twin) classes


  • the lowest position in society, living in miserable condition
  • Mainly involved in service-oriented businesses

Emerging Caste: Kayastha

  • Initially known as clerical staff
  • Evolved into a separate caste with two classes: Balangai and Ilangai
  • The Valangai castes enjoyed privileges, which led to occasional conflicts with the Elangai castes.

The economic basis of social life

Role of Valangai and Illangai Castes:

  • The Valangai castes are supported by Brahmins and Ballalas because of their involvement in agricultural production.
  • The Elangai castes, especially the Kammal caste, had economic importance
  • The Chola emperors granted the right to wear the sacred thread to the Kammal caste.
  • Elangai castes faced high taxation, leading to social inequalities.

Economic Impact on Social Structure:

  • Social life in South India during the Chola Empire revolved around economic considerations.
  • Economic utility played an important role in determining social status

social customs and practices

Rites and Rituals:

  • Various customs are followed from birth to death
  • Marriage rituals had special importance

Marriage Customs:

  • Endogamy marriages were common, but intercaste marriages also took place
  • Marriages within the same gotra were considered illegal.

Polygamy and Monogamy:

  • Common people generally followed monogamy
  • Polygamy was prevalent among kings and nobles

Dietary Practices:

  • Vegetarianism was the ideal diet, except for the Rajputs
  • Rajputs used to consume meat and alcohol

Influence of Muslim Practices:

  • Muslim contact influenced social customs and food habits
  • Initially strained relations led to the destruction of the temple and forced conversions
  • Attempts were made to reunite individuals through the atonement, but later Hinduism discouraged such
  • practices.

Overall the society of the Chola Empire was characterized by a hierarchical structure with distinct classes and castes. The Brahmins maintained a dominant position, followed by the Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. Economic factors played an important role in determining social status. Social customs were observed, including marriage practices and dietary habits, with the influence of Muslim contact affecting the customs and interactions of the society.

Standard of living: Contrasting lifestyle in a feudal society

luxury amid inequality

Aishwarya dominated the kingdom of the king, ministers, and feudal lords. Residing in grand buildings, decked in fine clothes and costly ornaments, they indulged in a life of extravagance. The royal families and feudal lords took pride in having a multitude of women and employed many servants to attend to their every need. Meanwhile, the merchant class prospered, often emulating the lavish lifestyle of the feudal aristocracy.

Urban Bliss and social division

Within the cities, the general public experienced a sense of contentment. People enjoyed their urban life, embracing relative happiness. However, this picture was clouded by the presence of an underprivileged section of the society. The people of the lower rung had to face economic hardship and scorn. While the burden of the land tax was comparatively low, the peasants still bore the burden of additional levies.

Periodic famines added to their plight, leaving destitute people to perish in the absence of outside help. As a result, there emerged a huge disparity in the standard of living, contrasting the lives of the affluent and the poor.

Condition of Women: Evolving Roles and Cultural Practices

Erosion of Social Status

During this period, women experienced a decline in their social standing. Their freedom was severely curtailed by numerous restrictions. In their early years, they relied on their fathers, and once married, their dependence shifted to their husbands. The practice of Swayamvar, where a girl had the freedom to choose her life partner, was prevalent. However, the age of marriage for girls was progressively lowered, with the belief that they should be wedded before reaching puberty. In the twelfth century, the age of marriage was further reduced to safeguard against the abduction of women by Turks.

The Rise of Purdah and Impediments to Progress

Initially, the practice of purdah, which secludes women from public view, was not prevalent in society. However, with increased contact with the Muslim community, the practice gained prominence, hindering the advancement of women in their respective castes.

The Prevalence of Sati and Jauhar

The practice of sati was deeply ingrained in society, wherein a widow was expected to be cremated along with her deceased husband. According to the accounts of Arab writer Sulaiman, even the queens of a king would commit sati upon his demise. The Rajputs, on the other hand, practiced Jauhar, a ritual where women, in the face of impending defeat, would collectively burn themselves wearing saffron garments to safeguard their honor.

As societal norms evolved, these practices emerged as reflections of cultural traditions, albeit with profound implications for the lives and freedoms of women.

Education: Learning and its Limitations

Foundations of Primary Education

In this era, primary education for children was provided in schools established within temples or in the homes of teachers. The prevailing language of instruction shifted from Sanskrit to the colloquial language, Hindi. Alongside the alphabet, students were taught mathematics. To cater to higher education, colleges were established in major cities, attracting students from far and wide. Nalanda University, renowned internationally, welcomed students from China, Tibet, and the Southeastern Archipelago. The state provided food and clothing for students enrolled in the university.

Ayurveda and Military Education

Education in the science of Ayurveda thrived, encompassing subjects such as surgery and veterinary medicine. Military education was imparted to the sons of princes and feudal lords, preparing them for martial endeavors.

The Decline in Female Education

During this period, there was a regression in female education. The lowering of the marriage age for girls hindered their access to education. Girls from royal and affluent families were still educated at home. However, the lack of educational opportunities contributed to a diminishing respect for women.

Narrow Scholarly Outlook

Scholars of the time exhibited a narrowing of perspectives, reluctant to embrace scientific ideas from abroad. Instead of embracing new concepts, they clung to traditional notions. Notably, the eminent scholar Alberuni expressed astonishment at the Hindu belief that they alone possessed scientific knowledge, dismissing scholars from foreign lands.

This arrogance and narrow-mindedness had adverse consequences for society. Notably, universities such as Ennairam, Tribhuvani, Thiruvaduthurai, and Tiruvariyura in South India gained prominence during this period.

The Divide of Language and Lost Connection

Due to the medium of instruction being Sanskrit rather than the local language, Tamil, many college students grew disconnected from daily life, resulting in a detachment from practical knowledge and experiences.


In conclusion, the social conditions during the Chola dynasty were characterized by a stark contrast between the lives of the wealthy elite and the disadvantaged sections of society. The king, his ministers, and feudal lords enjoyed a life of luxury, residing in grand structures, adorned with extravagant attire and jewelry. The merchant class flourished and emulated the opulent lifestyle of the feudal lords.

However, this affluence was accompanied by a significant disparity in living standards. While urban dwellers generally experienced happiness, there existed a poor class struggling with economic hardships. Farmers, though burdened by taxes, sustained their livelihoods. Yet, periodic famines posed a severe threat to the poor, often leading to starvation if external assistance did not reach them.

Furthermore, women witnessed a decline in social status and faced numerous restrictions on their freedom. The practice of purdah gained prevalence, obstructing the progress of women, and the age of marriage for girls was lowered, limiting their educational opportunities. Traditional practices such as sati and Jauhar further exemplified the challenges faced by women in this society.

Education, though present, had limitations. Primary education was offered in temple schools or the homes of teachers, while colleges catered to higher education. Nalanda University stood as a renowned institution, attracting students from distant lands. However, female education suffered, and the dominance of Sanskrit as the medium of instruction created a disconnect from everyday life for many students.

Overall, the social conditions of the Chola dynasty reflect a complex landscape of opulence, disparity, and cultural practices that both enriched and hindered different segments of society.

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