Medieval India - Online History

The Impact of Aurangzeb’s Southern Policy on the Decline of the Mughal Empire

Aurangzeb-Introduction During Akbar’s rule, the Mughal Empire experienced a period of growth and stability. However, the policies implemented by his successor, Aurangzeb, contributed to the gradual weakening and decline of the empire. Among these policies, Aurangzeb’s religious, Rajput, and southern strategies played a significant role in undermining the empire’s strength. This article will specifically focus … Read more

Evaluation of the Mughal Jagirdari System

The Jagirdari system was the basis of the system on which the importance and usefulness of the Mansabdari system were based in the administrative system during the Mughal period. This system provided sources of income to the Jagirdars. These vassals lived in large palaces and lived a luxurious lifestyle. Let us know what was the … Read more

What was the Mansabdari system? – Mughal History

The Mughal period is one of the most famous periods in the history of India. It is a mixture of hate and love. Although this hatred is more religious than tyranny or injustice. But in this blog, we will study about the Mansabdari system, which is called the backbone of the administrative system of the … Read more

Akbar’s assessment as national emperor-Mughal History

Akbar is one of the world’s greatest emperors. His foresight and wise policies are unreservedly praised by historians everywhere. At the time Akbar ascended the Mughal throne, his kingdom was inhabited by people of different religions, castes, and sects, and there was no unity among them, so his accession marked the beginning of a new … Read more

Sultanate Central Administration: Structure and Functions of Wazir, Ariz-i-Mumalik, Barid-i-Mumalik, and Other Departments

During the Sultanate period, the central administration played a crucial role in ensuring the smooth functioning of the government. The Sultan appointed ministers and assigned various departments to them. The Council of Ministers, known as ‘Majlis-e-Khalwat,’ played a pivotal role in the administration.

Sultanate Central Administration: Structure and Functions of Wazir, Ariz-i-Mumalik, Barid-i-Mumalik, and Other Departments

Sultanate Central Administration

Over time, the number of ministers in the Sultanate period evolved. Initially, during the Das dynasty, there were four ministers, but later this number increased to six. The key positions in the central administration included:

  • Wazir
  • Ariz-e-Mumalik
  • Diwan-i-Rasalat
  • Diwan-i-Insha
  • Sadr-i-Sudur
  • Diwan-i-Qaza

Functioning of the Central Administration

The ‘Majlis-e-Khalwat’ meetings took place in the ‘Majlis-e-Khas.’ During these gatherings, the Sultan, along with scholars, Mullahs, and Qazi, handled most of the state affairs in the ‘Bar-e-Azam.’ This space served as a platform for completing important tasks and making significant decisions for the Sultanate.

Wazir– Prime Minister and Administrator

The Wazir held a prominent position as the prime minister of the Sultanate, overseeing various departments such as rent, tax system, charity, and military affairs. Primarily, the Wazir served as the head of the revenue department, ensuring the smooth functioning of financial matters.

In the absence of the Sultan, the Wazir assumed responsibility for the administrative duties, effectively managing the affairs of the state. The Wazir also held key positions in departments such as ‘Diwan-i-Israf’ (Auditor’s Department) and ‘Diwan-i-Amir Kohi’ (Agriculture Department), further demonstrating their broad range of responsibilities.

Assisting the Wazirwere officials such as ‘Naib Wazir’, ‘Musrif-e-Mumalik’, ‘Majmuadar’, and ‘Khazin,’ who supported the Wazir in their administrative tasks, ensuring the efficient functioning of the government machinery.

Naib – Deputy and Significance

The position of Naib was established by the Sardars during the reign of Bahram Shah, and it held particular significance during the rule of weak Sultans. It was considered the second-highest position in the hierarchy, following that of the Sultan.

Over time, powerful Sultans would either abolish this post altogether or grant it as an honorary title to individuals deserving of recognition and honor. As a result, the significance and role of the Naib varied depending on the circumstances and the strength of the ruling Sultan.

Naib Wazir – Deputy Prime Minister

The Naib Wazir served as the deputy to the Wazir, fulfilling two primary roles. Firstly, in the absence of the Wazir, the Naib Wazir assumed the responsibilities and functions of the Wazir, effectively acting as a substitute or representative.

Secondly, in the presence of the Wazir, the Naib Wazir worked as an assistant, providing support and aid in the execution of the Wazir’s duties and tasks. The Naib Wazir played a crucial role in maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the administration, ensuring the smooth functioning of the government in both the absence and presence of the Wazir.

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Mansabdari system | When and Who Started the Mansabdari System? | What Merits and Demerits

The Mughals developed a unique administrative system known as the Mansabdari system, which had no parallel outside of India. It is believed that this system may have originated during the time of the renowned Mongol conqueror and invader, Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan organized his army based on a decimal structure, where the smallest unit was … Read more

Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period – Urdu, Persian and Arabic literature in the Mughal era

The Mughals excelled in various areas, including architecture, literature, science, and administrative efficiency, making significant contributions to these fields. The Mughal era witnessed a remarkable flourishing of literature. Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period The evolution of Indian literature gave rise to the emergence of Urdu as an independent language by … Read more

Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun, also known as Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun, was a renowned Mughal ruler. He was born on March 6, 1508 AD in Kabul to ‘Maham Begum,’ the wife of Babur. Among Babur’s four sons, Humayun was the eldest, followed by Kamran, Askari, and Hindal. Babur designated Humayun as his successor. At the tender age of 12, in 1520 AD, Humayun was appointed as the governor of Badakhshan even before his coronation in India. During his tenure as the governor of Badakhshan, Humayun actively participated in all of Babur’s military campaigns in India.

Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun-Early Life & Education


Humayun, born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, Afghanistan, was the eldest son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and his wife Maham Begum. He belonged to the Timurid dynasty, which had a rich heritage in Central Asia.

During his early years, Humayun received a comprehensive education befitting a future ruler. He studied various subjects, including literature, history, art, mathematics, and astronomy. His education also encompassed military training, equipping him with the skills necessary to lead armies and engage in warfare.

Humayun’s childhood was shaped by the turbulent political environment in which his father operated. Babur faced numerous challenges in establishing and maintaining his rule over the newly founded Mughal Empire. As a result, Humayun witnessed firsthand the intricacies of politics and military strategies from an early age.

In 1526, at the age of 18, Humayun accompanied his father in the battle of Panipat, where Babur emerged victorious and established the Mughal Empire in India. This pivotal moment further exposed Humayun to the art of governance and the complexities of ruling a vast empire.

After Babur’s death in 1530, Humayun ascended to the throne at the age of 22, becoming the second Mughal emperor. However, his early years as ruler were marked by challenges and opposition. He faced rebellions from various regional powers and rivals who sought to undermine his authority and seize power for themselves.

Despite these obstacles, Humayun displayed diplomatic acumen and military prowess in his efforts to consolidate his rule. He successfully defended his empire against internal and external threats, securing his position as the ruler of a vast and diverse empire.

Humayun’s early reign also saw his marriage to Hamida Banu Begum, who would later become the mother of his renowned son and successor, Akbar the Great.

However, Humayun’s rule was interrupted in 1540 when Sher Shah Suri, a prominent Afghan noble, defeated him in the Battle of Kanauj. As a result, Humayun was forced into exile, leading to a fifteen-year period of struggle and wanderings.

During his exile, Humayun faced numerous hardships and setbacks but also gained valuable experiences and allies. He sought refuge in Persia, where he formed alliances with the Safavid dynasty and received military assistance.

Humayun’s early life was characterized by a combination of princely education, exposure to the intricacies of power, and the challenges of ruling an empire. These experiences would shape his character and leadership style as he embarked on a remarkable journey to reclaim his throne and restore the Mughal Empire.

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The Rise and Fall of the Mughal Empire – Impact of the Mughals on Indian Culture

After the death of Timur, no such worthy person was born in his generation who could save the great empire of Timur from disintegrating. Therefore, after Timur, Timurid princes and emirs established small kingdoms in Central Asia and became embroiled in civil wars. Among them, there was a kingdom called Fargana whose ruler was Umar … Read more

Aurangzeb Alamgir: Did the Mughal emperor who ruled India for 50 years really hate Hindus?

Aurangzeb is one of the most unpopular rulers in Indian history. He was a staunch Islamic ruler and he destroyed many Hindu temples and built mosques. Apart from this, he behaved very inhumanly with the Hindus. Today in this article we will test the veracity of these allegations Aurangzeb Alamgir: Did the Mughal emperor who ruled India for 50 years really hate Hindus? Must read the article till the end.

Aurangzeb Alamgir: Did the Mughal emperor who ruled India for 50 years really hate Hindus?

Aurangzeb Alamgir-early life

Aurangzeb, the most controversial ruler of the Mughal dynasty and Indian history, was born on 3 November 1618 in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the sixth child and third son of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan was the governor of Gujarat at the time of his birth.

NameAurangzeb Alamgir
Full NameAbul Muzaffar Muhammad Mohiuddin Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir Badshah Ghazi
Birth3 November 1618
Birth placeDahod Gujarat India
Father's nameShah jahan
Mother's nameMumtaz
GharanaTaimuri
LinageMughal dynasty
ReligionSunni islam
Reign31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707
Wives namesDilras Bano Begum, Begum Nawabbai, Aurangabadi Mahal Begum, Udaipuri Mahal.
Names of sonsMohammad Sultan, Bahadur Shah, Mohammad Azam Shah, Mohammad Kambakhsultan Mohammad Akbar
Daughters namesZeb-un-Nisa, Zeenat-un-Nisa, Badr-un-Nisa, Zubdat-un-Nisa, Mehr-un-Nisa
Coronation13 June 1659 in Shalimar Bagh
DeathMarch 3, 1707
Age at death(age 88)
MausoleumAurangzeb's Tomb, Khuldabad Aurangabad Maharashtra, India
ArticleMedieval India

In June 1626, as a result of Shah Jahan’s failed rebellion, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shikoh were imprisoned by Nur Jahan at their grandfather Jahangir’s court in Lahore.

When Shah Jahan was proclaimed Mughal emperor on 26 February 1628, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort. It was here that Aurangzeb received formal education in Arabic and Persian.

It was Aurangzeb during whose reign the Mughal Empire reached its zenith. He was probably the richest and most powerful man of his time. During his lifetime, through conquests in some of the kingdoms of South India, the Mughal Empire covered twelve and a half million square miles and ruled over 150 million people, a quarter of the world’s population.

Aurangzeb was a devout Muslim and imposed a Sharia-based Fatwa-i-Alamgiri on the entire empire and imposed a high tax called Jizya on non-Muslims for a long time. He was not the first Muslim ruler to impose Sharia on non-Muslim subjects. He killed Guru Tegh Bahadur of the Sikhs for not accepting Islam and destroyed many temples and built mosques in place of temples.

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