The Bahmani Kingdom (Sultanate), established in 1347, was a Muslim kingdom that emerged from the Delhi Sultanate in India. With its capital initially at Gulbarga and later shifting to Bidar, the Bahmani Sultanate played a significant role in the Deccan region’s history. It followed a feudal administrative system and encompassed multiple provinces governed by Tarafdars. The kingdom’s cultural and architectural influences were a blend of Indo-Islamic and Persian styles. The Bahmani Sultanate left a lasting impact on South India, shaping the spread of Islam, patronage of Sufi saints, and the development of regional languages.
Establishment of the Bahmani Kingdom (1347 AD)
The Bahmani kingdom was established in 1347 AD as a result of the rebellion led by the ‘Amiran-i-Sadah’ in the Deccan during the waning days of Muhammad bin Tughluq’s reign. The chieftains of the Deccan proclaimed ‘Ismail’ Afghan as the king of the Deccan, naming him ‘Nasiruddin Shah’ after capturing the fort of Daulatabad. However, Ismail proved unfit for the position due to his advanced age and lack of competence. Consequently, he was compelled to abdicate in favor of a more capable leader, Hasan Gangu, known as ‘Zafar Khan’.
Alauddin Bahmanshah – The Founding Sultan
On August 3, 1347, Zafar Khan was declared Sultan by the name of ‘Alauddin Bahmanshah’. While he claimed descent from ‘Bahmanshah’, the heroic son of ‘Isfandiyar’ from Iran, historical accounts, such as Firishta’s, indicate that he initially served Gangu, a Brahmin. To honor his former master, he adopted the title of Bahmanshah upon assuming the throne. Alauddin Hasan established Gulbarga as his capital, renaming it ‘Ahsanabad’. He divided the empire into four provinces: Gulbarga, Daulatabad, Berar, and Bidar. Alauddin Bahmanshah passed away on February 4, 1358.
Firoz Shah – Capable Ruler of the Bahmani Empire
Among the successors who ascended the throne after Alauddin Bahmanshah, Firoz Shah (1307-1422) proved to be the most capable ruler. He played a pivotal role in shaping the empire’s trajectory and governance during his reign.
The Rise and Conflicts with Vijayanagara Empire
During the period leading up to the rise of the Bahmani kingdom and the death of Devaraya II in 1446, the Bahmani Empire had a mixed history of conflicts with the Vijayanagara Empire. These conflicts had both positive and negative outcomes for the Bahmani kingdom.
Firoz Shah Bahmani: The Most Powerful Ruler
Among the rulers of the Bahmani kingdom, Firoz Shah Bahmani stood out as the most influential and capable leader. He possessed an extensive knowledge of theology, including Quranic interpretations and jurisprudence. Firoz Shah had a keen interest in various fields such as Botany, Natural Science, Linear Mathematics, and Logic. Additionally, he was a skilled scribe and poet, often composing poems during conversations.
Multilingual and Multicultural Influence
Firoz Shah’s linguistic abilities were remarkable. According to historical accounts, he was proficient not only in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish but also in regional languages such as Telugu, Kannada, and Marathi. He had a diverse range of wives, hailing from different religions and countries. Among them were numerous Hindu wives, and it is said that he conversed with each of them in their own language, demonstrating his inclusive and multilingual approach.
Firoz Shah Bahmani’s reign showcased his intellectual pursuits, linguistic prowess, and ability to foster a multicultural environment within the Bahmani kingdom.
Firoz Shah’s Cultural Vision
Firoz Shah’s determination to establish the Bahmani Deccan as India’s cultural hub
Scholarly Influence and Multiculturalism
- Leveraging the disintegration of the Delhi Sultanate to attract scholars and intellectuals
- Encouragement of Iranian, Iraqi, and other foreign scholars to foster cultural exchange
- Respect for scholars and individuals from various countries to gain insights into different societies and experiences
- Late-night gatherings with sages, poets, historians, and courtiers to engage in intellectual discussions
- Studying religious texts and showing reverence for teachings across different faiths
- Orthodox Muslim beliefs with weaknesses in alcohol consumption and music appreciation
- The prominent role of Deccani Brahmins in the administration, particularly in land revenue matters
- Balancing foreign investments with the involvement of Deccani Hindus
- Emphasis on Astronomy and Infrastructure
- Promotion of astronomy and establishment of an observatory in Daulatabad
- Focus on developing and maintaining major ports such as Chola and Dabhol
- Importance of these ports in facilitating trade with merchant ships from the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea, bringing luxury goods from around the world.
Expansion of Empire
Defeating the Gond king Narasimha Rai of Kherla
After defeating the Gond king Narasimha Rai of Kherla, Firoz Shah Bahmani started expanding his kingdom towards Berar. Rai gave him a gift of forty elephants, five maunds of gold, and fifty maunds of silver. Rai also married one of his daughters to him. Kherla Narasimha got it back and was made an Amir of the kingdom. Also, he was given the state dress, including an embroidered cap.
Battles with Devaraya I and Vijayanagara
Devaraya I’s daughter’s battles with Firoz Shah Bahmani and his subsequent battles with Vijayanagara are also prominent. The struggle for the possession of the Krishna-Godavari plains still continued. The Bahmani kingdom suffered a setback in 1417 when Firoz Shah was defeated at the hands of Bahmani Devaraya I. This defeat weakened the position of Firuz.
Civil War and the Influence of Gesu Daraz
He was getting old, and his two slaves had become very powerful. They planned to kill the Sultan’s brother Ahmad, who had been with the Sultan in all his battles. This sparked a civil war. In this, Ahmad got the support of Sufi saint Gesu Daraz of Deccan. Gesu Daraz had come to Deccan from Delhi some time back and was respected by both Hindus and Muslims. However, due to his old views, especially regarding science, he had a difference of opinion with the Sultan.
Ahmad Shah I’s struggle and expansion
The army deserted the Sultan, and he had to abdicate in favor of his brother. He died shortly thereafter. Ahmad Shah I, who was called ‘Wali’ because of his association with Gesu Daraz, continued to struggle for possession of the east coast of South India. He could not forget that the Bahmanis had been defeated in the previous two battles. To take revenge, he marched on Warangal, defeated and killed the king, and annexed most of Warangal. To strengthen his rule in the new state, he moved his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar. After this, his attention went towards Malwa, Gondwana, and Konkan.
Bahmani Conquest of Warangal
The Bahmani conquest of Warangal changed the balance of power in the South. The Bahmani kingdom gradually began to expand, reaching its highest peak of progress during the Diwani of Mahmud Gawan in 1448.
Rise of Mahmud Gawan
The early life of Mahmud Gawan was bleak. He was Iranian by birth and previously worked as a merchant. However, someone introduced him to the Sultan, and he quickly became a favorite, receiving the title of King of the Merchants (Malik-ut-Tujjar).
Influence of Mahmud Gawan
Under the reign of Muhammad Bahmani Shah III, Mahmud Gawan became a member of the governing committee. He held significant influence, along with Rajmata Nargis Begum, a woman of merit who took charge of the Deccan until the young king’s death. Afterward, Mahmud became the most powerful person in the Gawan state, serving as the Vizier or Peshwa for the new king.
Military Exploits and Conquests
Mahmud Gawan remained highly influential in the Bahmani kingdom for 20 years. He expanded the kingdom’s boundaries by conquering many eastern territories, and his military campaigns reached as far as Vijayanagara, including Kanchi. The Bahmani army showcased its power during these invasions. One of Mahmud Gawan’s major military contributions was the conquest of the western seaboard, including Dabhol and Goa. The loss of these ports proved disastrous for Vijayanagara while benefiting the Bahmani kingdom’s maritime trade and internal production.
Struggles for Authority and Battles
Mahmud Gawan also faced challenges in determining the northern boundary of the state. The kingdom of Malwa, Gondwana, Berar, and Konkan, ruled by the Khalji kings, had been vying for authority since the time of Ahmad Shah I. In this struggle, the Bahmani Sultans sought the help of the kings of Gujarat. Mahmud Gawan fought many tough battles, particularly with Mahmud Khilji, for control of Berar. With active assistance from the Raja of Gujarat, Mahmud Gawan gained the upper hand in these conflicts.
Battles of the South
Factors Driving Battles in the South
It is evident that the battles in the South were not based on religious divisions but rather on political, strategic, and trade control reasons. Additionally, the conflicts in the North and South were not entirely isolated, as there were engagements between Malwa and Gujarat in the west, as well as Orissa and Bengal in the east.
Expansion Toward the Coromandel Coast
There was a vision to establish control over the Coromandel Coast. The rulers of Orissa made significant advances into the south after 1450, reaching as far as Madurai. Their activities further weakened the Vijayanagara Empire, which was already experiencing internal strife following the death of Devaraya II.
Internal Reforms by Mahmud Gawan
Mahmud Gawan implemented several internal reforms in the Bahmani kingdom. He divided the kingdom into eight provinces or ‘Tarfs,’ each administered by a Tarfdar. The Samantas, responsible for administration, were assigned fixed salaries and duties. Those maintaining a team of 500 horses received 100,000 huns. Salaries could be provided in cash or in the form of Jagir, with additional revenue collection allowances for those receiving Jagir. Khalisa, a portion of land, was reserved in each province for the Sultan’s expenses.
Land Measurement and Taxation
Efforts were made to measure the land and assess taxes on farmers. Mahmud Gawan aimed for improved administration and revenue collection by implementing these measures.
Patronage of Arts and Education
Mahmud Gawan was a great patron of arts and education. He constructed a grand madrasa in the capital city of Bidar. The building, made of colored bricks, stood three stories tall and could accommodate a thousand teachers and students. The state provided them with free food and clothing. The madrasa attracted renowned scholars from Iran and Iraq, invited by Mahmud Gawan, further enhancing the intellectual and cultural environment.
Partition of the Bahmani Kingdom
Internal Strife among Chieftains
One of the major challenges faced by the Bahmani kingdom was internal infighting among the chieftains. These chieftains were divided into two categories: old and new, also known as ‘Dakshini’ and ‘Afki’. Mahmud Gawan, who belonged to the new category, had to make significant efforts to gain the trust of the Deccani chieftains. Despite adopting a liberal policy of conciliation, party conflicts persisted. His opponents successfully influenced the young Sultan and had Mahmud Gawan hanged in 1482 when he was 70 years old.
Intensification of Party Struggles and Division
Following Mahmud Gawan’s death, party struggles within the Bahmani kingdom intensified. Many provincial rulers declared their independence, leading to the division of the kingdom into five separate principalities. These independent principalities were Golconda, Bijapur, Ahmednagar, Berar, and Bidar. Ahmednagar, Bijapur, and Golconda played prominent roles in the politics of the south until their eventual merger with the Mughal Empire in the 17th century.
Cultural Significance and Influence
The Bahmani kingdom served as a cultural bridge between the south and the north. The resulting culture developed unique characteristics that distinguished it from the culture of the North. Subsequent rulers of the divided principalities also upheld these cultural traditions, which later influenced the development of Mughal culture during the Mughal period.
The Reign of Imadshahi (1484–1572 CE)
During the reign of Imadshahi, who ruled from 1484 to 1572 CE, an independent state emerged in Alikpur, Varhad. This period saw the growing importance and expansion of the Imadshahi family. Fatehullah, the founder of this family, played a crucial role in establishing and strengthening their rule. Notably, under Imadshahi’s rule, significant developments took place, including the introduction of gunpowder for the first time. Moreover, Shihabuddin Ahmad I, a prominent ruler of the Sultanate, relocated the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar, renaming it Muhammadabad.
Fatehullah Madshah (1484): The Origins of the Imad Shahi Dynasty
Fatehullah Madshah, the founder of the Imad Shahi dynasty, traces his roots back to the Telangi Brahmin community. Originally hailing from Vijayanagara, Fatehullah’s life took a significant turn when he became involved in a conflict with the Vijayanagara king and was captured by Muslim forces. Subsequently, Fatehullah embraced the Muslim religion and found favor under the patronage of Muhammad Gawan, a prominent figure in the Bahmani kingdoms. It was during this time that Fatehullah acquired the book Imad Utmulak, authored by Varad ki Subhadari.
In 1484, Fatehullah, assuming the name Imadshah, began to independently govern his affairs. However, his reign was short-lived, as he passed away later that same year.
Alauddin Imdshah (1484-1527): Gavilgarh and Political Alliances
Succeeding Fatehullah, Alauddin Imdshah assumed the throne in 1484. He chose Gavilgarh as his capital, a formidable fort known for its strategic location and architectural strength. Even to this day, remnants of a mosque from that era can be found within the fort’s premises.
During his reign, Muhammad Shah Bahmani sought refuge with Alauddin for a brief period before returning to Vizier Amir Berid Yaz. Alauddin, facing hostilities with the Nizamshah of Ahmadnagar, had to forge alliances with the kings of Khandesh and Gujarat to confront this common adversary. Consequently, he sought support from the King of Gujarat by relinquishing certain territories. Alauddin’s reign came to an end in 1527 when he passed away. His eldest son, Dariya Imdshah, succeeded him.
Dariya Imdshah: The Decline and Annexation of the Imad Shahi Dynasty
Dariya Imdshah, the last emperor of the Imad Shahi dynasty, married the Nizamshah’s family, fostering a period of peace within the realm, free from internal conflicts. However, during Dariya’s rule, a cunning chieftain named Tufalkhan seized power while the young emperor was still in his youth.
In 1572, Murtaza Nizam Shah launched an invasion on the fort, resulting in Tufalkhan seeking refuge in Narnala fort. Murtaza Nizam Shah, along with his diwan Jangizkhan, deposed and executed Tufalkhan and the descendants of Imadshah, known as the Hans. As a consequence, the kingdom of Varhad was annexed to the Nizamshahi of Ahmadnagar, marking the end of the Imad Shahi dynasty.
Bidar – The Rise of the Baridshahi Dynasty
The city of Bidar in Karnataka became the stronghold of the Baridshahi dynasty, which was one of the five independent states that emerged after the disintegration of the Bahmani kingdom in South India. The founder of the Baridshahi dynasty was Qasim Barid, also known as Barid ul-Malik, who served as the chief vizier during the reign of Shahabuddin Mahmud Shah Bahmani (1414–1518). During this period, power was concentrated in the hands of Nizam-ul-Mulk, Qasim Barid, and Imad-ul-Mulk.
Tensions arose due to the oppressive rule of Nizam-ul-Mulk and Qasim Barid, leading Imad-ul-Mulk to depart for his mansion in Warda. When Nizam-ul-Mulk invaded Telangana, he was assassinated by Qasim Barid, who was subsequently appointed as the Vizier by the Sultan. The governors of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, and Varhad declared their independence, but Qasim Barid remained loyal to the Sultan. Following his death, his son Amir Ali Barid assumed the role of chief vizier (c. 1504–1542) and wielded significant power.
After the demise of Mahmud Shah in 1518, four successive sultans ruled the Bahmani dynasty. The last Sultan, Kalimullah, attempted to seize power with the assistance of Babur. In a desperate move, he sought refuge first in Bijapur and later in Ahmednagar. Consequently, Amir Ali Barid became the ruler of Bidar, marking the establishment of a new monarchy. He continued his father’s policies but lacked the military exploits of Malik Ahmad Nizamshah and Yusuf Adilshah. Yusuf Adilshah referred to him as the “Robah-i-Deccan” or the southern fox, cautioning others to be wary of his cunning nature.
Following the demise of the final Sultan of the Bahmani dynasty, Amir Ali declared his independence and assumed the title of Sultan. The sultans of Varhad and Khandesh sought assistance from Bahadur Shah of Gujarat in their struggle against the triumvirate of Ahmednagar, Bijapur, and Bidar. However, during the conflict, Amir Ali Barid attempted to divert the army of Bijapur. In response, Ismail Adilshah dispatched his forces against Amir Ali Barid. Amir Ali entrusted the management of the Bidar Fort to his eldest son and sought refuge in the Udgir Fort. However, Ismail Adilshah captured Amir Ali Barid in 1529.
After the Adilshahi army captured the city of Bidar, Amir Ali Barid was released as a nobleman of Bijapur. The forts of Kalyani and Kandahar were handed over to Bijapur as part of the agreement. Amir Ali Barid participated in the Nizamshah’s campaign against Ibrahim Adilshah in 1540 but had to retreat when faced with Adilshahi forces. Subsequently, Amir Ali passed away at Daulatabad in 1542, and his authority was passed down to his son, Ali Baridshah I (c. 1542–1580). Ali Baridshah I was a skilled ruler and the first to adopt the title of “shah.” In 1543, he allied with Burhan Nizamshahi and conspired with the Vijayanagara king Sadashivaraya Gaja to launch an attack on Bijapur. Ali Baridshah I was the first to join the campaign.
The Battle of Atalkot and the Disintegration of Southern Sultanates
Following the decisive victory of the southern sultans over Vijayanagara in the Battle of Atalkot in 1565, their unity quickly dissolved. The conflict between Bijapur and Ahmednagar escalated, centering around whether Murtaza Nizam Shah should conquer Barhad and Bidar, while Ali Adilshah sought to conquer both kingdoms in Karnataka.
As per the agreement, when Murtaza Nizam Shah invaded Varhad in 1570, Tufal Khan, the representative of Varad, appealed to Ali Baridshah for assistance. However, Ali Baridshah refused to provide support. Subsequently, the focus shifted to Bidar after the conquest of Varaha in 1574, with Murtaza Nizamshah joining forces with Ibrahim Qutbshah to lay siege to Bidar. Ali Barid sought aid from Ali Adilshah, leading to the besiegement of Bidar.
Ibrahim Baridshah and the Succession of Baridshahi Rulers
After the passing of Ali Barid, his power was inherited by Ibrahim Baridshah (c. 1580–86). During his reign, Bidar remained detached from the developments in the southern region for the next 20 years. Ibrahim Baridshah was succeeded by Qasim Baridshah (c. 1586–89), his youngest son. However, another relative named Amir Barid seized the throne in 1589.
Although historians hold differing opinions, evidence such as recently discovered Marathi and Persian inscriptions substantiates the existence of this Shah. Later, Amir Baridshah was deposed by a relative of the same dynasty, Mirza Ali Barid (c. 1601–09), who took control of the throne and exiled Amir Barid to Bhagnagar (Hyderabad). Mirza Ali Barid’s reign came to an end with his death in 1609, and a new ruler emerged within the dynasty.
The Conquest of Bidar and the Fall of the Baridshahi Dynasty
The last ruler of the Baridshahi dynasty was Sultan. However, Ibrahim Adilshah II conquered the state and brought it under his rule in 1619. This period witnessed significant political turmoil in the South. The Mughals had already defeated Khandesh and Ahmednagar, and they now turned their attention to the remaining Shahs in Golconda, Bijapur, and Bidar. Unfortunately, these Shahs became aware of the impending crisis too late, resulting in a dire situation for their respective kingdoms.
Baridshahi Sultans and Their Contributions to Architecture (AD 1500-1620)
During the period from AD 1500 to 1620, the Baridshahi Sultans played a significant role in the expansion of their kingdom, particularly in the field of architecture. Their artistic prowess can still be witnessed through surviving engravings and coins, showcasing their talent. This era also witnessed the flourishing of Indo-Saracenic architecture, with the construction of mosques and dargahs adorned with splendid calligraphy. Additionally, two notable forts were built in Bidar and Kalyani (Basava-Kalyana).
The Influence of Mahmud Gawan and Notable Structures
Mahmud Gawan, a knowledgeable minister and patron of learning, established a madrasa and made important contributions to knowledge acquisition during his time. Many structures erected by Mahmud Shah continue to stand, with the Shah Burj near the Gumbad Gate of Bidar Fort being particularly noteworthy. Mahmud Shah also constructed the Sharaj Gate of the fort, featuring magnificent carvings of tigers. The beautifully designed flooring in front of the gate, along with an inscribed article, further exemplifies his architectural achievements. The splendid tomb of Mahmud Shah in Ashtur serves as a testament to his legacy.
Artistic Pursuits of Ali Barid and Their Remnants
Ali Barid, an artistic Sultan, had a deep appreciation for poetry and calligraphy. His tombs in Bidar, along with the vibrant palaces built under his patronage, are sights to behold, showcasing his artistic inclinations and aesthetic taste.
Bahmani Dynasty Rulers (1358-1397 AD)
- Muhammad Shah I: Chief ruler of the Bahmani dynasty from 1358 to 1375 AD.
- Allauddin Mujahid Shah: Ruled from 1375 to 1378 AD.
- Dawood I: Ruled in 1378 AD.
- Muhammad Shah II: Ruled from 1378 to 1397 AD.
These rulers of the Bahmani dynasty preceded the Baridshahi Sultans and laid the foundation for the subsequent architectural achievements and cultural advancements during the Baridshahi era.
Life under the Bahmani Kingdom
The Bahmani Kingdom, originating from the Delhi Sultanate in 1347, was a Muslim realm that heavily drew upon the art, culture, and daily life influenced by its predecessor. Let’s explore various aspects of life in the Bahmani Kingdom.
The administrative structure of the Bahmani Kingdom closely mirrored that of the Delhi Sultanate, with minimal modifications. The administration followed a feudal system, where provincial governors governed smaller territories.
- The Sultan held absolute power over all aspects of the administration, acting as the head of the state and considered the representative of God on earth.
- Muhammad Shah-1 divided his territories into four provinces called Tarafs, each having its capital at Daulatabad, Gulbarga, Bidar, and Berar.
Tarafdars served as governors of the Tarafs, responsible for administration and the army under the overall authority of the Sultan. Sometimes, they were also appointed as ministers in the Central Administration.
- Under Mahmud Gawan’s reign, the empire expanded, leading to an increase in the number of Tarafs to eight.
- Mahmud Gawan designated certain lands within each Taraf as Sultan’s property to balance the power of the Tarafdars.
- For administrative convenience, the Tarafs were further divided into Sarkars, and the Sarkars were subdivided into Parganas.
- At the Pargana level, administrators known as Kotwals, Deshmukhs, or Desais held authority.
- The village served as the basic unit of administration, headed by a Patel or Kulkarni.
Below is a list of key administrative officers in the Bahmani Kingdom:
|Vakil-us-Sultana||Equivalent to Naib Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate.|
|Peshwa||Attached to the Vakil|
|Wazir-i-Kul||Prime Minister; supervised all other ministries.|
|Amir-i-Jumla||Head of the Finance Department.|
|Wazir||Deputy Chief of the Finance Department.|
|Wazir Ashraf||Head of Foreign Affairs and the Royal Court.|
|Sadr-i-Jahan||Head of the Judicial and Charities Department.|
|Kotwal||Head of the Police Department.|
The Bahmani Kingdom maintained a significant standing army due to continuous conflicts with neighboring kingdoms.
- The Sultan held the position of commander-in-chief of the army.
- Amir-ul-Umra served as the general commander of the army.
- Khas-i-Khel acted as Sultan’s personal bodyguard.
- The army consisted of infantry, cavalry, war elephants, and artillery guns.
- The military followed the Mansabdari system, assigning jagirs (land grants) based on rank.
- Kiledars were responsible for the forts and answered directly to the Central Authority.
Land revenue served as the primary source of income in the Bahmani Kingdom. Amir-e-Jumla headed the revenue administration.
- The tax rate was set at one-third of the agricultural produce.
- Other taxes included house tax, mines tax, tobacco tax, grasslands tax, trade tax, and employment tax.
- The revenue earned from taxes was allocated to maintain the army, royal court, palaces, and public welfare projects.
The architecture of the Bahmani Kingdom showcased a fusion of Persian and Indo-Islamic styles. The capital cities of Bidar and Gulbarga were prominent centers of architectural excellence. Architects from Persia and neighboring regions were invited to construct magnificent structures. Notable buildings include:
- Gulbarga Fort
- Jama Masjid
- Haft Gumbaz
- Madrasa Mahmud Gawan
- Bidar Fort
- Bahmani Tombs
Additionally, Hasan Gangu constructed the Chand Minar at Daulatabad.
The Bahmani Kingdom marked the emergence of the first independent Muslim kingdom in South India, playing a significant role in the spread of Islam and Indo-Islamic traditions in the Deccan region. The Bahmani Sultans were patrons of numerous Sufi saints, including Gesu Daraz and Banda Nawaz, which led to the flourishing of Sufism in the South. The spread of Persian and Dakkhani Urdu languages is also attributed to the influence of the Bahmani Kingdom.
In summary, the Bahmani Kingdom inherited the administrative structure of the Delhi Sultanate, with the Sultan holding absolute power. The military played a crucial role due to frequent conflicts, and the revenue administration relied heavily on land revenue. The kingdom’s architecture showcased a blend of Persian and Indo-Islamic styles, while its cultural contributions included the promotion of Islam, Sufism, and the propagation of Persian and Dakkhani Urdu languages.