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Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Class 9 Notes History Chapter 2 NCERT

You can access the Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 2 SST PDF for free download, which contains notes on “Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution.” These notes are designed to facilitate quick revision and are an integral part of Class 9 Social Science study material. In this chapter, we delve into the topic … Read more

What is a thermonuclear bomb? – A fusion device – Full details

A thermonuclear bomb, also known as a hydrogen bomb or H-bomb, is a powerful weapon that derives its immense explosive force from an uncontrolled self-sustaining chain reaction involving isotopes of hydrogen combining at extremely high temperatures to form helium through nuclear fusion. The high temperature required for this fusion reaction is generated by detonating an … Read more

Shraddha Kapoor Net Worth and Biography-Biography, Education, Age, Height, Weight, Family, Boyfriend and Interesting Facts

Shraddha Kapoor is considered to be one of the most successful actresses in Bollywood. Apart from her scintillating acting chops, Shraddha rules the hearts of the audience with her beautiful voice and natural beauty. Shraddha made her acting debut in the film Teen Patti. She is the daughter of well-known Bollywood villain Shakti Kapoor. Today … Read more

Aaradhya Bachchan: Biography, Family, Age, Education, and Interesting Facts

Aaradhya Bachchan is the daughter of the well-known Bollywood actors Abhishek Bachchan and Aishwarya Rai Bachchan. She was born on November 16, 2011, in Mumbai, India. Despite being just a child, Aaradhya has already gained significant media attention due to her famous parents. Her father, Abhishek, is a prominent actor in the Indian film industry, … Read more

Earth Day: History, Significance, Usefulness, Theme 2023 & Quotes

Earth Day is an annual event celebrated every year on 22 April to create awareness for environmental protection. It was first celebrated in 1970 and has since become a global event with over 193 countries participating. Earth Day aims to raise awareness about environmental issues such as pollution, deforestation, climate change, and the conservation of … Read more

History of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: 13 April 1919 black day in Indian history

A Sikh-era field in Amritsar, East Punjab, India, where British forces opened fire on an unarmed crowd on April 13, 1919. The reason for this massacre was the enactment of the controversial Rowlatt Act on March 21, 1919, through which the freedom of Indians was taken away. The Act was being opposed by demonstrations and hartals across the country and Amritsar was also in a state of rebellion.

History of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre: 13 April 1919 black day in Indian history

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, took place on April 13, 1919, when a peaceful protest was suddenly opened fire by the British Indian Army on the orders of General Dyer. The demonstration also included those involved in the Baisakhi fair, which had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Punjab’s Amritsar district. These people participated in the Baisakhi festival which is a festival of cultural and religious significance for Punjabis. The visitors to the Baisakhi fair had come from outside the city and were not aware that martial law was in force in the city.

At 15:15 General Dyer arrived there with fifty soldiers and two armored vehicles and without any warning ordered to open fire on the crowd. This order was obeyed and hundreds lost their lives within minutes.

The area of this ground was 6 to 7 acres and it had five gates. On Dyer’s orders, the sepoys opened fire on the crowd for ten minutes and most of the bullets were aimed at people coming out of those same gates. The British government put the number of dead at 379 and the number of injured at 1,200. Other sources put the total death toll at over 1,000. This massacre shook the entire country and they lost faith in British rule. After a flawed initial investigation, Dyer’s comments in the House of Lords fueled the fire and the Non-Cooperation Movement began.

Activities before the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

On Sunday, April 13, 1919, when Dyer came to know about the agitators, he banned all gatherings, but the people did not listen to him. As the day of Baisakhi holds religious significance for Sikhism, people from nearby villages gather on the ground.

When Dyer came to know about the crowd in the ground, he immediately took fifty Gurkha soldiers with him and posted them on an elevated position at the edge of the garden, and ordered them to fire on the crowd. The gunfire lasted for about ten minutes until the bullets were almost over.

Dyer said that a total of 1650 bullets were fired. This number may have been derived from counting the empty cartridges of bullets collected by the jawans. According to British Indian officials, 379 were declared dead and around 1,100 were injured. According to the Indian National Congress, the death toll was estimated at 1,000, and the number of injured was around 1,500.

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Indus Civilization: Urban Planning and Local Government System of Indus Civilization

The Harappan Civilization, also known as the Indus Civilization, is one of the oldest civilizations in the world. One was an urban civilization noted for its large buildings and roads and local government. In this article, you will get information related to the city planning of the Indus civilization and its local government, please read the article till the end.

Urban Planning and Local Government System of Indus Civilization

If we examine the major rivers of the world, only four of them have given birth to great civilizations on their banks. Nile, Tigris and Euphrates and Indus. This did not happen with other rivers. The land on the banks of the Indus River was fertile, there were many forests and there were deserts all around. When cities were established, there was a need for timber and also for firewood. Wood was available to fire the brick kilns. Due to these reasons, the development of the urban civilization of the Indus Valley became possible. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization. Which was located in India and Pakistan.

Indus Civilization-Town Planning of Indus Civilization

From the first settlement to the last settlement in Mohenjodaro, the city map remained the same. Houses opening into the street and side streets were repeatedly built in their place. From this, Piggott concludes that either the same family ruled during all these years and that even though the family may have changed, the ancient traditions continued to be implemented without much alteration and this must have been possible through religious continuity.

Obviously, the means of production and the economic system did not change. The same laws will prevail as to religious beliefs. There will be no clear progress in society, nor will the beliefs change. Both the cities of Harappa and Monjodaro have the same plan.

High Fort – There is a large fort on the western edge of the city. Which is almost rectangular in shape. Its length is four hundred yards from north to south and its width is two hundred yards from east to west. The fort is built on a platform 03 feet high. This platform is surrounded by a strong brick wall and its belly is filled with mud bricks. There are rooms with big halls inside this fort. There are huge doors and platforms.

The settlement is located outside the palace and consists of small rooms for slaves, next to the floor of the barn and the large granary.

Social and Economic Life of the Harappan Civilization | Social and Economic Life of the Indus Valley Civilization

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Shakira Net worth: Wiki-Bio, Age, Height, Weight, Family, Husband-Boyfriend, Children, Career

Shakira is a Colombian pop singer, songwriter, dancer, and music album producer. Shakira is not only an artist but she is also associated with philanthropic work. Today in this blog we are sharing with you Shakira’s net worth, biography, age, height, weight, family, and children along with much other information. Please read the article till the end.

Shakira Net worth: Wiki-Bio, Age, Height, Weight, Family, Husband-Boyfriend, Children, Career

Shakira Net worth

Shakira’s net worth has grown steadily over the years, thanks to her successful music career, various business ventures, and lucrative endorsement deals. According to Forbes, Shakira’s net worth from 2018 to 2023 is as follows:

  • 2018: $220 million
  • 2019: $260 million
  • 2020: $300 million
  • 2021: $350 million
  • 2022: $365 million
  • 2023: $400 million

Who is Shakira

Shakira is a Colombian pop singer, songwriter, dancer, and music album producer. She is considered one of the most successful Latin music artists in the world and has won numerous awards for her performances, including three Grammy Awards, twelve Latin Grammy Awards, and several Billboard Music Awards.

Shakira’s most popular songs include “Hips Don’t Lie,” “Whenever Wherever,” and “Waka Waka (This Time for Africa).” In addition to music, Shakira is also recognized for her philanthropic work, notably through her Pez Descalzos Foundation, which helps poor children in Colombia with education and nutrition.

Shakira Biography 2023

Name:Shakira
Real nameShakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll
Date of Birth:2 February 1977
Place of Birth:Barranquilla, Colombia
Father's NameWilliam Mebarak Chadid
Mother's NameNidia Ripoll Torrado
SiblingsEight half-siblings
School:Catholic School
College:University of California University of California, Los Angeles
GenderFemale
Marital Status:Married
Husband Name:Gerard Piqué
Children's names:Milan and Sasha were born in 2013 and 2015, respectively
Nationality:Colombian
Religion:Catholic
Profession:Singer, Songwriter, Dancer, and Music Album Producer
Zodiac Sign:Aquarius
Net Worth:$400 million

Shakira’s Body Measurements

Age: 46 Years
Height: in Centimeters – 157 cms,
In feet and inches – 5′ 2″
Weight:In Kg – 54 Kg,
in pounds – 118 lbs
Eye Colour: Dark Brown
Hair Colour: Blonde

Shakira’s early life

Shakira whose full name is Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll is famous all over the world as Shakira. Shakira was born on February 2, 1977, in Barranquilla, Colombia. Her mother, Nidia Ripoll Torrado, is of Catalan and Italian descent, while her father, William Mebarak Chadid, is of Lebanese and Syrian descent. So it is clear that Shakira belongs to mixed blood.

Growing up, Shakira showed interest in various musical styles, including rock, pop, and Latin American folk music, which influenced her soft voice. She began writing songs and performing publicly at a very young age, and it is her amazing talent that landed her first commercial record deal with Sony Music Colombia by the time she was just 13.

Shakira’s initial success in Colombia led to opportunities for her in other Latin American countries, and she finally gained international recognition in 1995 with her album “Pez Descalzos”. Shakira’s career continued to grow after this and she became known as a well-known global superstar, known for her unique dance and song fusion. An exquisite mix of pop, rock, and Latin American rhythms, as well as her impressive vocals and dynamic live performances, get the audience dancing.

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