What is Civics?: Meaning, Definition and Importance

Civics encompasses the study of the relationship between individuals and society. It recognizes that human beings are inherently social creatures, reliant on societal structures for their existence and development. Aristotle aptly observed that those who can live without society are either animals or deities, highlighting the fundamental need for human interaction and community. What is … Read more

Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period – Urdu, Persian and Arabic literature in the Mughal era

The Mughals excelled in various areas, including architecture, literature, science, and administrative efficiency, making significant contributions to these fields. The Mughal era witnessed a remarkable flourishing of literature. Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period The evolution of Indian literature gave rise to the emergence of Urdu as an independent language by … Read more

The Fascinating History of Sengol: Unveiling the Story of the ‘Scepter’ and Its 7 Proofs

A symbol of power and prosperity, the ‘Sengol’ is a unique type of scepter that is conferred during the transfer of power. Its history dates back to the time of the Mauryan Empire, but it gained greater prominence during the reign of the Chola Empire. This article delves into the captivating story of Sengol, highlights … Read more

Bahmani Kingdom (1347-1518) – A Powerful Islamic State in The Deccan, Founder, Chief Ruler, Rise and Fall, Administrative System, Achievements

The Bahmani Kingdom (Sultanate), established in 1347, was a Muslim kingdom that emerged from the Delhi Sultanate in India. With its capital initially at Gulbarga and later shifting to Bidar, the Bahmani Sultanate played a significant role in the Deccan region’s history. It followed a feudal administrative system and encompassed multiple provinces governed by Tarafdars. The kingdom’s cultural and architectural influences were a blend of Indo-Islamic and Persian styles. The Bahmani Sultanate left a lasting impact on South India, shaping the spread of Islam, patronage of Sufi saints, and the development of regional languages.

Bahmani Kingdom (1347-1518) – a powerful Islamic state in the Deccan, founder, chief ruler, rise and fall, administrative system, achievements

Establishment of the Bahmani Kingdom (1347 AD)

The Bahmani kingdom was established in 1347 AD as a result of the rebellion led by the ‘Amiran-i-Sadah’ in the Deccan during the waning days of Muhammad bin Tughluq’s reign. The chieftains of the Deccan proclaimed ‘Ismail’ Afghan as the king of the Deccan, naming him ‘Nasiruddin Shah’ after capturing the fort of Daulatabad. However, Ismail proved unfit for the position due to his advanced age and lack of competence. Consequently, he was compelled to abdicate in favor of a more capable leader, Hasan Gangu, known as ‘Zafar Khan’.

Alauddin Bahmanshah – The Founding Sultan

On August 3, 1347, Zafar Khan was declared Sultan by the name of ‘Alauddin Bahmanshah’. While he claimed descent from ‘Bahmanshah’, the heroic son of ‘Isfandiyar’ from Iran, historical accounts, such as Firishta’s, indicate that he initially served Gangu, a Brahmin. To honor his former master, he adopted the title of Bahmanshah upon assuming the throne. Alauddin Hasan established Gulbarga as his capital, renaming it ‘Ahsanabad’. He divided the empire into four provinces: Gulbarga, Daulatabad, Berar, and Bidar. Alauddin Bahmanshah passed away on February 4, 1358.

Firoz Shah – Capable Ruler of the Bahmani Empire

Among the successors who ascended the throne after Alauddin Bahmanshah, Firoz Shah (1307-1422) proved to be the most capable ruler. He played a pivotal role in shaping the empire’s trajectory and governance during his reign.

The Rise and Conflicts with Vijayanagara Empire

During the period leading up to the rise of the Bahmani kingdom and the death of Devaraya II in 1446, the Bahmani Empire had a mixed history of conflicts with the Vijayanagara Empire. These conflicts had both positive and negative outcomes for the Bahmani kingdom.

Firoz Shah Bahmani: The Most Powerful Ruler

Among the rulers of the Bahmani kingdom, Firoz Shah Bahmani stood out as the most influential and capable leader. He possessed an extensive knowledge of theology, including Quranic interpretations and jurisprudence. Firoz Shah had a keen interest in various fields such as Botany, Natural Science, Linear Mathematics, and Logic. Additionally, he was a skilled scribe and poet, often composing poems during conversations.

Multilingual and Multicultural Influence

Firoz Shah’s linguistic abilities were remarkable. According to historical accounts, he was proficient not only in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish but also in regional languages such as Telugu, Kannada, and Marathi. He had a diverse range of wives, hailing from different religions and countries. Among them were numerous Hindu wives, and it is said that he conversed with each of them in their own language, demonstrating his inclusive and multilingual approach.

Firoz Shah Bahmani’s reign showcased his intellectual pursuits, linguistic prowess, and ability to foster a multicultural environment within the Bahmani kingdom.

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Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social Status and Contradictions

During the Chola Empire, the social structure was organized into a hierarchical caste system with distinct classes and castes. The society followed the varna system based on the ancient Hindu society, which included Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras, but now many sub-castes were formed on the basis of professions. Inter-caste marriages and the emergence of new castes further complicated the social fabric of the empire.

Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social Status and Contradictions

Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social

Chola society during the medieval period witnessed a distinct social hierarchy and varying degrees of social status. At the top of the pyramid were the king, his ministers, and feudal lords, who enjoyed lives of luxury, residing in magnificent buildings and adorned with fine clothing and precious ornaments.

The merchant class thrived and emulated the opulent lifestyle of the elite. However, amidst this affluence, there existed a significant disparity in living standards.

The urban population generally experienced contentment, but a marginalized class faced economic challenges. The farming population endured simple economic conditions, burdened by taxes and susceptible to periodic famines. The social status of women declined, with restrictions on their freedom and limited educational opportunities.

Traditional practices like sati and Jauhar further impacted the lives of women. Overall, Chola society was characterized by a complex interplay of wealth, social divisions, and cultural practices, shaping the lives of its diverse population.

I. Social classes and castes


  • High position in society, similar to South India
  • Various groups existed within the Brahmin community
  • Monopoly on worship and religious rituals, religious rituals and temple priests were involved

Kshatriya (Rajput):

  • Kshatriyas were second in the social hierarchy
  • Duties include defending the country, governing, and fighting


  • Engaged in trade, shopkeeping, and agriculture
  • Considered part of the Dwija (twin) classes


  • the lowest position in society, living in miserable condition
  • Mainly involved in service-oriented businesses

Emerging Caste: Kayastha

  • Initially known as clerical staff
  • Evolved into a separate caste with two classes: Balangai and Ilangai
  • The Valangai castes enjoyed privileges, which led to occasional conflicts with the Elangai castes.

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Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun, also known as Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun, was a renowned Mughal ruler. He was born on March 6, 1508 AD in Kabul to ‘Maham Begum,’ the wife of Babur. Among Babur’s four sons, Humayun was the eldest, followed by Kamran, Askari, and Hindal. Babur designated Humayun as his successor. At the tender age of 12, in 1520 AD, Humayun was appointed as the governor of Badakhshan even before his coronation in India. During his tenure as the governor of Badakhshan, Humayun actively participated in all of Babur’s military campaigns in India.

Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun-Early Life & Education

Humayun, born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, Afghanistan, was the eldest son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and his wife Maham Begum. He belonged to the Timurid dynasty, which had a rich heritage in Central Asia.

During his early years, Humayun received a comprehensive education befitting a future ruler. He studied various subjects, including literature, history, art, mathematics, and astronomy. His education also encompassed military training, equipping him with the skills necessary to lead armies and engage in warfare.

Humayun’s childhood was shaped by the turbulent political environment in which his father operated. Babur faced numerous challenges in establishing and maintaining his rule over the newly founded Mughal Empire. As a result, Humayun witnessed firsthand the intricacies of politics and military strategies from an early age.

In 1526, at the age of 18, Humayun accompanied his father in the battle of Panipat, where Babur emerged victorious and established the Mughal Empire in India. This pivotal moment further exposed Humayun to the art of governance and the complexities of ruling a vast empire.

After Babur’s death in 1530, Humayun ascended to the throne at the age of 22, becoming the second Mughal emperor. However, his early years as ruler were marked by challenges and opposition. He faced rebellions from various regional powers and rivals who sought to undermine his authority and seize power for themselves.

Despite these obstacles, Humayun displayed diplomatic acumen and military prowess in his efforts to consolidate his rule. He successfully defended his empire against internal and external threats, securing his position as the ruler of a vast and diverse empire.

Humayun’s early reign also saw his marriage to Hamida Banu Begum, who would later become the mother of his renowned son and successor, Akbar the Great.

However, Humayun’s rule was interrupted in 1540 when Sher Shah Suri, a prominent Afghan noble, defeated him in the Battle of Kanauj. As a result, Humayun was forced into exile, leading to a fifteen-year period of struggle and wanderings.

During his exile, Humayun faced numerous hardships and setbacks but also gained valuable experiences and allies. He sought refuge in Persia, where he formed alliances with the Safavid dynasty and received military assistance.

Humayun’s early life was characterized by a combination of princely education, exposure to the intricacies of power, and the challenges of ruling an empire. These experiences would shape his character and leadership style as he embarked on a remarkable journey to reclaim his throne and restore the Mughal Empire.

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Monica Bellucci, Wiki/Bio, Early Life, Movies, Husband, Boyfriend, Net Worth, And More

Monica Bellucci, a flourishing Italian model-turned-actress, has left an indelible mark on the entertainment industry. Initially drawn towards a career in law, her destiny had different plans as a young Bellucci discovered her true calling in the world of modeling. Driven by her passion for fashion, she embarked on a part-time modeling journey to support … Read more

History of Sudarshan Lake: Evidence of Human Genius, Engineering Prowess of Ancient India

Sudarshan Lake is an ancient Mauryan man-made lake located in Girnar, Gujarat, and holds significant historical significance and heritage. This lake was built by Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya dynasty and India’s first Chakravarti emperor. The responsibility of its construction was entrusted to Governor Pushyagupta Vaishya, who was working in Girnar at that … Read more

The Seven Years War: Causes, Battles, and Impact on Global History

The Seven Years’ War, fought between 1756 and 1763, is often regarded as the original ‘World War’. This included Franco-British conflicts in North America and India, which eventually expanded into a major European war. The British victory during this war played an important role in consolidating the “First British Empire”. Seven Years War North America: … Read more

Thirty Years War: A Transformative Conflict in European History (1618-1648)

Thirty Years’ War, spanning from 1618 to 1648, was a significant series of conflicts that took place in Europe. It involved numerous nations, each driven by distinct motivations, such as religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. The consequences of this war were far-reaching, with its destructive campaigns and battles impacting vast regions of Europe. Ultimately, … Read more