Sultanate Central Administration: Structure and Functions of Wazir, Ariz-i-Mumalik, Barid-i-Mumalik, and Other Departments

During the Sultanate period, the central administration played a crucial role in ensuring the smooth functioning of the government. The Sultan appointed ministers and assigned various departments to them. The Council of Ministers, known as ‘Majlis-e-Khalwat,’ played a pivotal role in the administration.

Sultanate Central Administration: Structure and Functions of Wazir, Ariz-i-Mumalik, Barid-i-Mumalik, and Other Departments

Sultanate Central Administration

Over time, the number of ministers in the Sultanate period evolved. Initially, during the Das dynasty, there were four ministers, but later this number increased to six. The key positions in the central administration included:

  • Wazir
  • Ariz-e-Mumalik
  • Diwan-i-Rasalat
  • Diwan-i-Insha
  • Sadr-i-Sudur
  • Diwan-i-Qaza

Functioning of the Central Administration

The ‘Majlis-e-Khalwat’ meetings took place in the ‘Majlis-e-Khas.’ During these gatherings, the Sultan, along with scholars, Mullahs, and Qazi, handled most of the state affairs in the ‘Bar-e-Azam.’ This space served as a platform for completing important tasks and making significant decisions for the Sultanate.

Wazir– Prime Minister and Administrator

The Wazir held a prominent position as the prime minister of the Sultanate, overseeing various departments such as rent, tax system, charity, and military affairs. Primarily, the Wazir served as the head of the revenue department, ensuring the smooth functioning of financial matters.

In the absence of the Sultan, the Wazir assumed responsibility for the administrative duties, effectively managing the affairs of the state. The Wazir also held key positions in departments such as ‘Diwan-i-Israf’ (Auditor’s Department) and ‘Diwan-i-Amir Kohi’ (Agriculture Department), further demonstrating their broad range of responsibilities.

Assisting the Wazirwere officials such as ‘Naib Wazir’, ‘Musrif-e-Mumalik’, ‘Majmuadar’, and ‘Khazin,’ who supported the Wazir in their administrative tasks, ensuring the efficient functioning of the government machinery.

Naib – Deputy and Significance

The position of Naib was established by the Sardars during the reign of Bahram Shah, and it held particular significance during the rule of weak Sultans. It was considered the second-highest position in the hierarchy, following that of the Sultan.

Over time, powerful Sultans would either abolish this post altogether or grant it as an honorary title to individuals deserving of recognition and honor. As a result, the significance and role of the Naib varied depending on the circumstances and the strength of the ruling Sultan.

Naib Wazir – Deputy Prime Minister

The Naib Wazir served as the deputy to the Wazir, fulfilling two primary roles. Firstly, in the absence of the Wazir, the Naib Wazir assumed the responsibilities and functions of the Wazir, effectively acting as a substitute or representative.

Secondly, in the presence of the Wazir, the Naib Wazir worked as an assistant, providing support and aid in the execution of the Wazir’s duties and tasks. The Naib Wazir played a crucial role in maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the administration, ensuring the smooth functioning of the government in both the absence and presence of the Wazir.

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Lala Lajpat Rai: Early Life, Revolutionary Activities, Political Views, and Precious words

Lala Lajpat Rai, known as Punjab Kesari, was an eminent Indian freedom fighter (28 January 1865 – 17 November 1928). Alongside being a key leader of the Garam Dal in the Indian National Congress, Lal-Bal-Pal, he played a vital role in the struggle for independence. Lala Lajpat Rai was not only a nationalist but also … Read more

Mansabdari system | When and Who Started the Mansabdari System? | What Merits and Demerits

The Mughals developed a unique administrative system known as the Mansabdari system, which had no parallel outside of India. It is believed that this system may have originated during the time of the renowned Mongol conqueror and invader, Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan organized his army based on a decimal structure, where the smallest unit was … Read more

Revolt of 1857 Causes, Events, Results and Heroes and Important Facts

The Revolt of 1857, also known as the First War of Independence, marked a significant turning point in India’s history. It was the culmination of British direct intervention in various aspects of Indian society that had been ongoing since 1757.

Revolt of 1857 Causes, Events, Results and Heroes and Important Facts

Reasons for the Revolt of 1857:

Political Reasons:

During Lord Dalhousie’s administration, a policy was implemented that had significant consequences for many Indian rulers. According to this policy, if a local king did not have a biological heir, they were deprived of their rule. Even if they adopted a son, the British authorities refused to recognize the adoption, resulting in the forceful conversion of numerous Indian rulers into subjects under British dominion.

Under this comprehensive policy, several states were annexed by the British, including:

  • Satara (1848)
  • Jaitpur, Sambalpur, Bundelkhand (1849)
  • Balaghat (1850)
  • Udaipur (1852)
  • Jhansi (1853)
  • Nagpur (1854)
  • Awadh (1856)

The British authorities removed the rulers of these states from power, prompting them to make persistent efforts to regain their territories and authority.

Administrative Reasons:

The denial of Indians from high-ranking positions in the administration and the continued unequal treatment of Indians were key administrative grievances that fueled the Revolt of 1857.

Economic Factors:

Economic policies imposed by the British played a role in the origins of the revolt. The three land revenue policies, namely Permanent Settlement, Ryotwari Settlement, and Mahalwari Settlement, along with increased export taxes, decreased import taxes, the decline of handicraft industries, and the drain of wealth, all contributed to economic dissatisfaction among the Indian population.

Socio-Religious Factors:

The entry of Christian missionaries into India, the abolition of the sati system, the legal recognition of widow remarriage, and the forceful deployment of Indian soldiers on sea voyages were significant socio-religious factors that instigated the Revolt of 1857.

Military Causes:

The unequal treatment of Indian soldiers, denial of promotions to higher posts, lower pay compared to European soldiers, the passing of the Post Office Act, and the abolition of free postal services were major military grievances that led to the outbreak of the revolt.

Immediate Cause:

The combination of various policies implemented by the British over the past century, along with the aforementioned reasons, generated widespread resentment among different sections of Indian society and served as the catalyst for protests. Some of the immediate causes that ignited the fire of dissent are as follows:

Introduction of the Enfield rifle: In January 1857, the British Indian Army introduced the new Enfield rifle. It was rumored that the cartridges used with this rifle were greased with cow and pig fat, which were considered sacred and tabooed in Hindu and Muslim religious beliefs respectively. The soldiers, considering it an affront to their religious sentiments, refused to use the rifle.

Mangal Pandey’s uprising: In response to the new rifle and its cartridges, on March 1857, Mangal Pandey, a soldier, attacked his senior officers in Barrackpore. As a consequence, Mangal Pandey was hanged on April 8, 1857.

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What is Civics?: Meaning, Definition and Importance

Civics encompasses the study of the relationship between individuals and society. It recognizes that human beings are inherently social creatures, reliant on societal structures for their existence and development. Aristotle aptly observed that those who can live without society are either animals or deities, highlighting the fundamental need for human interaction and community. What is … Read more

Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period – Urdu, Persian and Arabic literature in the Mughal era

The Mughals excelled in various areas, including architecture, literature, science, and administrative efficiency, making significant contributions to these fields. The Mughal era witnessed a remarkable flourishing of literature. Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period The evolution of Indian literature gave rise to the emergence of Urdu as an independent language by … Read more

The Fascinating History of Sengol: Unveiling the Story of the ‘Scepter’ and Its 7 Proofs

A symbol of power and prosperity, the ‘Sengol’ is a unique type of scepter that is conferred during the transfer of power. Its history dates back to the time of the Mauryan Empire, but it gained greater prominence during the reign of the Chola Empire. This article delves into the captivating story of Sengol, highlights … Read more

Bahmani Kingdom (1347-1518) – A Powerful Islamic State in The Deccan, Founder, Chief Ruler, Rise and Fall, Administrative System, Achievements

The Bahmani Kingdom (Sultanate), established in 1347, was a Muslim kingdom that emerged from the Delhi Sultanate in India. With its capital initially at Gulbarga and later shifting to Bidar, the Bahmani Sultanate played a significant role in the Deccan region’s history. It followed a feudal administrative system and encompassed multiple provinces governed by Tarafdars. The kingdom’s cultural and architectural influences were a blend of Indo-Islamic and Persian styles. The Bahmani Sultanate left a lasting impact on South India, shaping the spread of Islam, patronage of Sufi saints, and the development of regional languages.

Bahmani Kingdom (1347-1518) – a powerful Islamic state in the Deccan, founder, chief ruler, rise and fall, administrative system, achievements

Establishment of the Bahmani Kingdom (1347 AD)

The Bahmani kingdom was established in 1347 AD as a result of the rebellion led by the ‘Amiran-i-Sadah’ in the Deccan during the waning days of Muhammad bin Tughluq’s reign. The chieftains of the Deccan proclaimed ‘Ismail’ Afghan as the king of the Deccan, naming him ‘Nasiruddin Shah’ after capturing the fort of Daulatabad. However, Ismail proved unfit for the position due to his advanced age and lack of competence. Consequently, he was compelled to abdicate in favor of a more capable leader, Hasan Gangu, known as ‘Zafar Khan’.

Alauddin Bahmanshah – The Founding Sultan

On August 3, 1347, Zafar Khan was declared Sultan by the name of ‘Alauddin Bahmanshah’. While he claimed descent from ‘Bahmanshah’, the heroic son of ‘Isfandiyar’ from Iran, historical accounts, such as Firishta’s, indicate that he initially served Gangu, a Brahmin. To honor his former master, he adopted the title of Bahmanshah upon assuming the throne. Alauddin Hasan established Gulbarga as his capital, renaming it ‘Ahsanabad’. He divided the empire into four provinces: Gulbarga, Daulatabad, Berar, and Bidar. Alauddin Bahmanshah passed away on February 4, 1358.

Firoz Shah – Capable Ruler of the Bahmani Empire

Among the successors who ascended the throne after Alauddin Bahmanshah, Firoz Shah (1307-1422) proved to be the most capable ruler. He played a pivotal role in shaping the empire’s trajectory and governance during his reign.

The Rise and Conflicts with Vijayanagara Empire

During the period leading up to the rise of the Bahmani kingdom and the death of Devaraya II in 1446, the Bahmani Empire had a mixed history of conflicts with the Vijayanagara Empire. These conflicts had both positive and negative outcomes for the Bahmani kingdom.

Firoz Shah Bahmani: The Most Powerful Ruler

Among the rulers of the Bahmani kingdom, Firoz Shah Bahmani stood out as the most influential and capable leader. He possessed an extensive knowledge of theology, including Quranic interpretations and jurisprudence. Firoz Shah had a keen interest in various fields such as Botany, Natural Science, Linear Mathematics, and Logic. Additionally, he was a skilled scribe and poet, often composing poems during conversations.

Multilingual and Multicultural Influence

Firoz Shah’s linguistic abilities were remarkable. According to historical accounts, he was proficient not only in Persian, Arabic, and Turkish but also in regional languages such as Telugu, Kannada, and Marathi. He had a diverse range of wives, hailing from different religions and countries. Among them were numerous Hindu wives, and it is said that he conversed with each of them in their own language, demonstrating his inclusive and multilingual approach.

Firoz Shah Bahmani’s reign showcased his intellectual pursuits, linguistic prowess, and ability to foster a multicultural environment within the Bahmani kingdom.

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Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social Status and Contradictions

During the Chola Empire, the social structure was organized into a hierarchical caste system with distinct classes and castes. The society followed the varna system based on the ancient Hindu society, which included Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras, but now many sub-castes were formed on the basis of professions. Inter-caste marriages and the emergence of new castes further complicated the social fabric of the empire.

Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social Status and Contradictions

Chola Society: Historical Analysis of Social

Chola society during the medieval period witnessed a distinct social hierarchy and varying degrees of social status. At the top of the pyramid were the king, his ministers, and feudal lords, who enjoyed lives of luxury, residing in magnificent buildings and adorned with fine clothing and precious ornaments.

The merchant class thrived and emulated the opulent lifestyle of the elite. However, amidst this affluence, there existed a significant disparity in living standards.

The urban population generally experienced contentment, but a marginalized class faced economic challenges. The farming population endured simple economic conditions, burdened by taxes and susceptible to periodic famines. The social status of women declined, with restrictions on their freedom and limited educational opportunities.

Traditional practices like sati and Jauhar further impacted the lives of women. Overall, Chola society was characterized by a complex interplay of wealth, social divisions, and cultural practices, shaping the lives of its diverse population.

I. Social classes and castes


  • High position in society, similar to South India
  • Various groups existed within the Brahmin community
  • Monopoly on worship and religious rituals, religious rituals and temple priests were involved

Kshatriya (Rajput):

  • Kshatriyas were second in the social hierarchy
  • Duties include defending the country, governing, and fighting


  • Engaged in trade, shopkeeping, and agriculture
  • Considered part of the Dwija (twin) classes


  • the lowest position in society, living in miserable condition
  • Mainly involved in service-oriented businesses

Emerging Caste: Kayastha

  • Initially known as clerical staff
  • Evolved into a separate caste with two classes: Balangai and Ilangai
  • The Valangai castes enjoyed privileges, which led to occasional conflicts with the Elangai castes.

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Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun, also known as Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun, was a renowned Mughal ruler. He was born on March 6, 1508 AD in Kabul to ‘Maham Begum,’ the wife of Babur. Among Babur’s four sons, Humayun was the eldest, followed by Kamran, Askari, and Hindal. Babur designated Humayun as his successor. At the tender age of 12, in 1520 AD, Humayun was appointed as the governor of Badakhshan even before his coronation in India. During his tenure as the governor of Badakhshan, Humayun actively participated in all of Babur’s military campaigns in India.

Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun-Early Life & Education

Humayun, born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, Afghanistan, was the eldest son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and his wife Maham Begum. He belonged to the Timurid dynasty, which had a rich heritage in Central Asia.

During his early years, Humayun received a comprehensive education befitting a future ruler. He studied various subjects, including literature, history, art, mathematics, and astronomy. His education also encompassed military training, equipping him with the skills necessary to lead armies and engage in warfare.

Humayun’s childhood was shaped by the turbulent political environment in which his father operated. Babur faced numerous challenges in establishing and maintaining his rule over the newly founded Mughal Empire. As a result, Humayun witnessed firsthand the intricacies of politics and military strategies from an early age.

In 1526, at the age of 18, Humayun accompanied his father in the battle of Panipat, where Babur emerged victorious and established the Mughal Empire in India. This pivotal moment further exposed Humayun to the art of governance and the complexities of ruling a vast empire.

After Babur’s death in 1530, Humayun ascended to the throne at the age of 22, becoming the second Mughal emperor. However, his early years as ruler were marked by challenges and opposition. He faced rebellions from various regional powers and rivals who sought to undermine his authority and seize power for themselves.

Despite these obstacles, Humayun displayed diplomatic acumen and military prowess in his efforts to consolidate his rule. He successfully defended his empire against internal and external threats, securing his position as the ruler of a vast and diverse empire.

Humayun’s early reign also saw his marriage to Hamida Banu Begum, who would later become the mother of his renowned son and successor, Akbar the Great.

However, Humayun’s rule was interrupted in 1540 when Sher Shah Suri, a prominent Afghan noble, defeated him in the Battle of Kanauj. As a result, Humayun was forced into exile, leading to a fifteen-year period of struggle and wanderings.

During his exile, Humayun faced numerous hardships and setbacks but also gained valuable experiences and allies. He sought refuge in Persia, where he formed alliances with the Safavid dynasty and received military assistance.

Humayun’s early life was characterized by a combination of princely education, exposure to the intricacies of power, and the challenges of ruling an empire. These experiences would shape his character and leadership style as he embarked on a remarkable journey to reclaim his throne and restore the Mughal Empire.

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