Jaichand (1173-1193 AD) (Jaichand Rathore) (Jaychandra) was the ruler of Kannauj Kingdom. In his time, the kingdom stretched from Banaras to Gaya and Patna, in the fertile region between the Yamuna and Ganges rivers. He belonged to the Gaharwar dynasty, which later came to be known as the Rathor dynasty. He was the father of Sanyogita, wife of Prithviraj Chauhan. He was defeated and killed by Muhammad Ghori in the battle of Chandawar in 1193-94.
Jaichand is mentioned in Prithviraj Raso, a semi-historical tale on the life of Prithviraj Chauhan; One such description is found in the Ain-i-Akbari (16th century). Other sources include inscriptions from the Battle of Tarain and other sources. His court poet Bhatt Kedar wrote a eulogy on his life called Jaichand Prakash (1168 AD), but it no longer exists. Poet Madhukar’s Jaya Mayank, Jas Chandrika is another lost eulogy in his life.
Description of Jaichand in Prithviraj Raso
The most popular account of Jaichand’s life is found in the Prithviraj Raso and many of its texts, but the historicity of this legend is disputed by many historians. According to this legend, after becoming one of the most powerful rulers in North India, Jaichand decided to perform a symbolic sacrifice (Ashwamedha Yagya) to declare his supremacy. A rival king, Prithviraj did not accept his suzerainty. Jaichand was Prithviraj’s cousin: his mothers were sisters of the Tomar dynasty.
Prithvi Raj Chauhan and Sanyogita
Jaichand learns that his daughter Sanyogita and Prithviraj are in love with each other. So Jaichand insulted Prithviraj by erecting an idol which depicts him as the gatekeeper of his palace. Jaichand also decided to organize a swayamvar (a ritual for a woman to choose her husband) for her daughter. But during the Swayamvar, his daughter put a garland on the statue of Prithviraj. Thereafter, an enraged Prithviraj raided Jaichand’s palace, and later fled against his wishes with his daughter Sanyogita.
Thus, Prithviraj and Jaichand became enemies. When Muhammad Ghori (also known as Sultan Shahabuddin) invaded India, Jaichand formed an alliance with Ghori and helped defeat Prithviraj. However, Ghori later betrayed Jaichand and defeated him in the battle of Chandavar. Another version that is accepted is that Jaichand along with Prithviraj Chauhan did not assist his army against the invaders and later faced and was defeated by Ghori.
death and inheritance
According to a legend, Jaichand was killed in the battle of Chandavar. According to another account, he was taken as a prisoner to Ghazni, where he was killed after attempting to shoot Muhammad Ghori with an arrow. Jaichand’s son Harish Chandra ruled Kanauj as a subordinate of Muhammad Ghori until 1225 AD when Iltutmish ended his rule. Another version is that Jaichand escaped the war and fled with his entourage to the Kumaon hills, where his descendants established a new kingdom.
Because he allegedly helped a foreign invader defeat the Indian king Prithviraj, Jaichand became a symbol of betrayal in Indian folklore.
Battle of Chandawar (1194 AD)
- The battle of Chandawar was fought in 1194 AD between Mohammad Ghori and Jai Chand Garhwal/Rathore. In this battle, Jai Chand was defeated and Mohammad Ghori also killed him.
- This fight is part of an important sequence of events that took place in North India, and the article will provide all the information in a useful context for the IAS exam.
Chandawar War – Background
- Muhammad Ghori, a ruler of the Gharid kingdom, was determined to establish his territory over India, unlike Muhammad Ghazni, who wanted to plunder India’s wealth.
- In 1191, Ghori fought the first battle of Tarain with Prithviraj Chauhan as he attacked Chauhan’s dominions.
- Ghori was defeated at the First Battle of Tarain and felt humiliated and disappointed by his defeat.
- Later he increased his strength and the strength of the army and made preparations to avenge his defeat.
- This resulted in the Second Battle of Tarain in 1192 AD. In this war, Ghori defeated Prithviraj Chauhan and captured Ajmer. Thus the first Muslim state was established in Ajmer.
- After victory at the Second Battle of Tarain, Ghori returned to Ghazni, leaving his general Qutb al-Din Aibak to look after his possessions and conquer further India.
- Aibak captured places like Delhi and Meerut.
- These victories gave confidence and prepared the ground for another invasion by Ghori. This prompted Ghori to attack the Garhwala kingdom and resulted in the Battle of Chandawar.
Key facts of the battle of Chandawar
Who were the participants in this war?
- Muhammad Ghori Sultan belonged to the Ghurid Empire.
- Jai Chand (or Jayachandra) of Kanauj (1169 – 1194 AD) belonged to the Garhwala dynasty.
Where did the fight take place?
The battle took place at Chandawar (modern Chandawal near Firozabad) on the Yamuna River near Agra.
Who led the battle of Chandawar on behalf of Ghori?
The Ghurid army was led by Qutb al-Din Aibak during the battle of Chandawar.
Who won the battle of Chandawar?
This is the second important victory of Muhammad of Ghori after his victory against the Rajput ruler Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192, the Second Battle of Tarain.
After the Battle of Chandavari
- After Jai Chand’s defeat at the Battle of Chandawar, Muhammad Ghori took control of most of northern India.
- Successive victories at the Second Battle of Tarain and the Battle of Chandavar laid the foundation for Turkish rule in India.
- The Ghurid army plundered the treasury of the Gahadavala dynasty and captured the Asni fort.
- The Kannauj/Garhwalas army anticipated Ghori to attack the next capital, but he decided to attack the defenseless city of Varanasi, a famous Hindu pilgrimage center.
- Turkic outposts were placed in Varanasi, Asni and other wealthy cities.
- However, Harishchandra, son of Jai Chand, was able to expel the Turkic troops, thus recapturing Kanauj, Jaunpur and Mirzapur in 1197 AD. Thus, the Garhwala dynasty remained dormant during the reign of Harishchandra.
- It seems that Kanauj remained independent until it was conquered by Iltutmish of the Delhi Sultanate.
Frequently asked questions about Battle of Chandawari
Who defeated Jai Chand of Kannauj?
The last powerful king of the Garhwala dynasty, Jai Chand (or Jayachandra) was defeated and killed by Muhammad Ghori in the battle of Chandawar in 1194 AD.
Did Jai Chand initially support Mohammad Ghori?
In the second battle of Tarain in 1192 AD, Jai Chand assisted Ghori against Prithviraj Chauhan. He supported Muhammad Ghori in the Second Battle of Tarain because of his rivalry with Prithviraj Chauhan III. But later he was killed by Ghori in the battle of Chandawar in 1194 AD.