Today we read Mesopotamian Civilization. The civilization of Mesopotamia. The area of present-day Iraq, Kuwait, Syria is also called Babylonian or Babylonian/Sumerian civilization. It was a contemporary human civilization of the Indus Valley Civilization, its chronology is considered to be 2300-2150 BC. Today we will know the history of Mesopotamia.
|Mesopotamia Map- IMAGE CREDIT-http://ppup.ac.in|
Mesopotamia is a Greek word which means land between two rivers. The modern name of this country is Iraq. This region is irrigated by Tijla and Euphrates rivers. Mesopotamia is also called the fertile crescent because of its crescent shape and being extremely fertile from the point of view of agriculture.
In ancient times, the southern part of the Mesopotamian region was called Sumer, which was the main center of this civilization. The north-east of Sumer was called Babylon (Babylon) and Akkad. And the high land of the north was called Assyria.
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Later on, the Sumerians who came from the mountainous regions of the north settled in Mesopotamia and they developed a very prosperous civilization.
The Sumerians established the city-state government. Ur, Lagash, Erek and Eridu were famous kingdoms. Around 2500 BC, Sagan I, who had come from Akkad, conquered the Sumerian people. By joining both Sumer and Akkad, he established a strong kingdom.
But around 2100 BC, these Akkadians were also defeated. A new Semitic dynasty emerged in Babylon or Babylon. The city of Babylon now became the capital center of this new empire.
The most famous emperor of Babylonia, Habburabi, stopped the wars in different city-states and established a strong state by applying uniform laws throughout the country.
The Babylonian civilization was also based on the Sumerian civilization. After this, the Assyrians established their empire in Mesopotamia from about (1100 to 612 BC).
The Assyrians established a vast empire by conquering the territories of Syria, Palestine, Phoenicia etc. After this, the Caldians defeated the Assyrians and created a second powerful Babylonian empire (612 BC to 539 BC).
But in 539 BC He had to be defeated at the hands of the Parsis. The civilizations of Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria and Coldia are collectively known as the civilization of Mesopotamia.
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Hammurabi’s Code of Law – The Babylonian emperor Hammurabi had made a code of law for his subjects. Which is the oldest legal code available at this time. The emperor had it engraved on an eight feet high stone rock. Hammurabi’s principle of punishment was that like tit and blood for blood.
Social Life of Mesopotamia –
In Mesopotamian civilization, the king is considered the representative of the gods on earth. After the king and the royal family, the second place belonged to the priestly class. Who was probably the ruler before the prestige of the monarchy. The merchants in the middle class were landlords and shopkeepers. The position of slaves in the society was at the lowest. Due to continuous war, the army had an important place in the society.
Economic life of Mesopotamian civilization
Agriculture and animal husbandry- Agriculture was the main occupation of the people of this civilization. The farmers there used to plow the land with plows. And the seeds were sown by funnels. To irrigate the fields, they used to take the flood waters of the rivers to the canal and collect them in big dams. Cattle were used for plowing through the plows. And to improve their breed, breeding of animals was also started.
Trade and Industry– Mesopotamian civilization was basically a commercial civilization. There the temple of the deity was not only a religious place but also a commercial center. This was the first development of the banking system. Mesopotamia had trade relations with the Indus Saraswati civilization of India. Many objects of Indus Saraswati civilization have been found in the excavation of Ur city of Mesopotamia.
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Religious beliefs of the people– Mesopotamians used to believe in many gods and goddesses. Each city had its own patron deity. He was called a ziggurat. Which means hill of heaven. The city of Ur was one of the outermost cities of Mesopotamia. The ziggurat in Ur city was built with bricks on an artificial hill. The ziggurat of Ur had three storeys and was more than 20 meters high. The people of Mesopotamia were more focused on the practical problems of the life of this world than on the hereafter. His priests were also engaged in business.
Knowledge of Mesopotamian Civilization
The achievements of the people of Mesopotamia in the field of science were important. He had made a lot of progress in the field of astronomy. He had known the exact time of sunrise, sunset and moonrise and moonset. He divided the whole day into 24 hours by calculating the time of day and night properly. The first division of the minute of sixty seconds and one hour of sixty minutes was done in Mesopotamia itself. They started dividing the circle of geometry into 360 degrees. In this way the inhabitants of Mesopotamia were aware of the advanced traditions of science and mathematics.
Architecture – Mesopotamian artists also invented the arch. The arch was an important discovery of architecture. Because it could handle a lot of weight. And it looked very attractive to see.
Cuneiform script – The first script of Mesopotamia was developed in Sumer. The Sumerian merchants developed the art of writing by making a kili-like sign to keep their accounts, it is called cuniform or cuneiform.
History of Mesopotamia Culture
The Sumerian civilization is also known as the Mesopotamian civilization. It literally means the land between rivers. The area between the two rivers of that time, the Tigris and the Euphrates, was called Mesopotamia.
This civilization expanded in the area of modern Iraq, north-eastern Syria, south-eastern Turkey and Iran’s Kuzestan. The civilizations of Sumer, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyria existed in this period.
Ur, Kish, Nipour, Erek, Eridi, Larsa, Lagash, Nisin, Nineveh were the major cities of Mesopotamian culture, of which Nipour was a large and important city. Enlil, the god of this city, was worshiped in all regions.
Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization were contemporary, there was a movement of people between the two civilizations, due to which there are many similarities between the two. The people of both civilizations were believers and idolaters. In the society of that time, there was a tradition of worship and worship of temples and deities.
Mesopotamia had very similar life and traditions to the Hindus. The number of months was only twelve and the time calculation was also based on the motion of the moon. Adhikmas, Ashtami and Poornima were also considered as big dates.
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