The Jagirdari system was the basis of the system on which the importance and usefulness of the Mansabdari system were based in the administrative system during the Mughal period. This system provided sources of income to the Jagirdars. These vassals lived in large palaces and lived a luxurious lifestyle. Let us know what was the Jagirdari system.
Mughal Jagirdari System
When Mansabdars were allotted the revenue of a land area instead of cash salary, it was called their Jagir or Tiul. The recipient of the jagir was called Jagirdar or Tiuldar. The Jagirdar had the right to collect rent and other taxes from this area. This money is used to get its salary and other administrative expenses.
Who started the Jagirdari system?
The foundation of the Jagirdari system was laid during the period of Akbar but its development took place during the period of Shahjahan. The estimated income of the Jagir was called Jama or Jamadani and the income actually received was called Hal-i-Hasil. This system was transferable, although some hereditary jagirs are also mentioned. There were different types of jagirs.
Jagir Taankhwah – Jagir granted in lieu of cash salary was called Jagir Taankhwah. There was no ownership of land. These Jagirs were not hereditary, but their officials were generally transferred in three-four years.
Mashrut Jagir – When a person was given a jagir on some condition, then it was called Mashrut Jagir. Watan Jagir- If the land revenue of his dominion or jurisdiction was allotted to the Mansabdars, then it was called his Watan Jagir. If the income of the watan jagir was less than the salary of the Mansabdar, then this deficiency was made up for by giving him an additional jagir salary.
Watan Jagir was hereditary. Their officers were also not transferred. In the beginning, Akbar had given watan jagirs only to the Rajput rulers. But later other hereditary rulers were also given.
Inam Jagir – It was given to a person as a reward for his special service. It used to be without position and work. No administrative responsibilities were given to its recipient, the land area named Madd-e-Mash was included in this, which was given to scholars, religious persons, and respected persons. Madad-e-Mash was also called Sayurgal. The land of Madd-e-Mash was made hereditary by the late Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I.
Altamga Jagir – It was first given during the period of Jahangir. It was awarded to a specially favored family with the emperor’s golden seal.
Emma Jagir- Emma Jagir was started by Jahangir. It was a jagir given to Muslim theologians and ulemas.
Mahal-e-Paibaki Jagir land could be converted into Khalisa as per the requirement. Such jagir land which was temporarily taken under the central administration was called Mahal-i-Paivaki (reserved or non-paid land). As per the requirement, this Mahal-e-Paivaki land could be used for granting new jagirs or for expansion in the areas of given jagirs.
What were the sources of income of the manor?
The income of the jagir was mainly revenue, trade duty, the toll on ghats and ports, and other miscellaneous cesses which were called Sair-Jihat. The estimated income of the Jagir was called Jama and the actual income was called Hal-i-Hasil. As a rule, the Jagirdars were allowed to collect only those taxes from their jagirs, which they had the right to receive from the emperor.
The accounting of the estimated income of the Jagir was with the Ministry of Revenue. The tax was assessed and collected by the Jagirdar or his representative. In the assessment of land revenue, he had to follow the rates approved by the Ministry of Revenue. Faujdar and Savaneh-Nigar exercised control over the Jagirdar. The faujdar had the right to execute the royal orders in the jagir.
Savanehanigar used to send information about the activities of the Jagirdars to the center. The Jagirdars were not allowed to exploit the farmers, but they had to make continuous efforts for the development of their Jagir and the progress of agriculture. If any Jagirdar was reported to be tyrannical, then his jagir was acquired or transferred.
Some Jagirdars used to allot some land of jagirs as revenue according to the salary of their soldiers. Apart from this, it was difficult for small Jagirdars to collect land revenue by staying away from their jagirs, so they started giving jagirs on Ijara (contract to collect land revenue) which later became a medium of exploitation of farmers.
Crisis in the Jagirdari system – The Jagirdari system continued smoothly till the first half of Aurangzeb’s rule, but later this system became endangered. There was a shortage of jagir land in the empire, due to which it became difficult to grant jagir.
This problem became more difficult due to Aurangzeb’s successor Bahadur Shah I liberally awarding mansabs and promoting Mansabdars. To solve this problem, Farrukhshiar started allotting Khalsa land in the form of Jagir, but the problem could not be solved.
The last attempt to reform this system was made by Wazi Nizamul Mulk during the time of Mohammad Shah, but he also did not get success. A. Gradually the Jagirdari system developed by the Mughals came to an end.