Akbar is one of the world’s greatest emperors. His foresight and wise policies are unreservedly praised by historians everywhere. At the time Akbar ascended the Mughal throne, his kingdom was inhabited by people of different religions, castes, and sects, and there was no unity among them, so his accession marked the beginning of a new era in India. showed that. As his kingdom was small in size, Akbar not only established a powerful empire by occupying vast territories of India, and his coordinating policies tied his empire into a thread of unification, but also of India It had a cultural, religious, and social impact. He succeeded in establishing unity within the divide.
Akbar as National Emperor
In fact, Akbar not only gave the empire a national shape through policies of harmony and coordination in the political, religious, economic, social, and artistic fields but also developed a culture inhabited by people of all classes and religions. His contribution is why he is called the “People’s Emperor”. Even Akbar’s scathing critic, Vincent Smith, acknowledged that “Akbar is justified in his claims that he was a born human ruler and one of the most powerful emperors in history.”
State form of India
Akbar’s first mission was to end the alien nature of the Mughals. The Mughals were considered foreigners and invaders, and both Afghans and Rajputs made a concerted effort in Hanwa to drive Babur out of India.
In order to rid the Mughals of their heterogeneity, Akbar tried to provide a form of state for the Mughal dynasty by marrying Rajputs. The marriage policy with the Rajputs was quite different from previous Muslim rulers. Violence was not used in these marriages, but rather voluntarily based on equality. Thus, Akbar’s Rajput policy based on equality, religious freedom, and harmony gave the Mughal dynasty a national character and formed a ruling class that included the Rajputs. Along with Muslim soldiers, Rajput soldiers also contributed to the conquest of empires and created the national sentiment in empire building.
political unity probability
Akbar’s first aim was to bind India together with political threads and awaken the national consciousness of the Indian people. He knew that political unity was an essential condition for establishing national unity. To this end, Akbar adopted a policy of imperialism, defending his small kingdom against enemies with courage and understanding, and only strengthened his empire by conquering all of northern India and weaving it into his political threads. Besides, Belal and he also extended his power and sovereignty by conquering several states in South India like Kandesh. He succumbed to the power of the Rajputs and Afghans, and to do so he relied on diplomacy in addition to military might.
However, Akbar never used the slogan “religious war” in the war, nor did he announce that he would convert “Dar-ul-Harb” to “Dar-ul-Islam.” In this way, Akbar not only brought political unity to India through his wisdom but also gave India a national character.
Establishing administrative unity
Akbar not only brought political unity across India but also introduced a uniform administrative system throughout the empire. The purpose of his regime was to separate politics from religion and to provide justice and equal opportunity for all living in the empire. Abandoning the policy of religious prejudice of the Turk-Afghan era, he also gave prominence in the regime and military to his staunchest political rivals, the Rajputs. To bring the whole country under one umbrella, Akbar introduced the same system of governance, judicial system, revenue settlement, and a similar coin for the development of trade.
During Akbar’s reign, all states of Sarkar and Pargana had a unified administrative system and all citizens had equal rights and protection without any discrimination. State laws applied equally to everyone. Although not an Islamic state, Akbar was credited with establishing a unified administrative system throughout the empire, with administrative posts open to all classes and religions based on merit.
Establishing religious unity
Akbar’s bold and fundamental effort to establish national unity was to establish unity in the religious sphere. His predecessors followed the concept of the Islamic state and imposed discriminatory taxes on Hindus according to the Sharia, so there was no feeling of love or friendship between different religions and denominations, and they sometimes fought with each other. Akbar understood very well that he could not rule all of India with the help of Islam. Akbar, therefore, encouraged religious tolerance and ‘faithfulness’ to instill a sense of love and unity among different religions. friendly also gave Hindus religious freedom by enslaving prisoners of war and abolishing forced conversions (1562 AD), pilgrimages (1563 AD), and the abolition of Jizya (1564 AD). gave It also allowed people of all religions to worship and build their own places of worship according to their wishes. He sought to give religious freedom and establish religious unity by marrying Rajput girls.
In the direction of religious harmony and adjustment.Ibada Tokana“Establishment of (House of Worship) (1575 AD), Permitting People of All Religions to Enter Ibada Tokana (1578)”majarnama‘ Proclamation (1579 AD), Din Irahi (1582 AD) and the beginning of the Elahi Sanvat (1583) were some of Akbar’s important works. In this way, Akbar put an end to feelings of religious animosity, enmity, and resentment and created a sense of mutual harmony, cooperation, unity, and religious tolerance, opening the way to progress for people of all religions and denominations. , played a valuable role in building the national society. United Nations contributed. This religious freedom was Akbar’s key achievement, and on this basis, he can definitely be called the “state emperor.”
Establishing social unity
Akbar sought to establish social unity by establishing political equality and ending religious discrimination. For the first time in Akbar’s reign, such an Indian social culture was formed in which the ideals of Hinduism and Islam were harmonized. Pilgrimages and jizyas were also abolished. This act of Akbar was significant because Jizya was taken only from Hindus, who felt humiliated because of it. With the abolition of Jizyah, Hindus, and Muslims became equal in the eyes of the regime. Apart from this, Akbar sought to end evils such as the slaughter of cattle, the practice of gluttony, and the killing of women, and he also stopped child marriage. Efforts have also been made to stop Muslims from growing beards, eating beef, drinking alcohol, fasting for Ramadan, and forgoing the pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Mughal nobility had both Hindu and Muslim officials. This led to the socio-cultural development of the Mughal court. The Mughal Mansabdar adopted a unified culture of dress, life, language, and manners. In the courts of the Mughal Empire, Islamic festivals such as the Parsi festival of Nowurz, Eid Shaberat, and Hindu festivals such as Diwali, Dussela, Rakshabandhan, and Shri Krishna Janmashtami were celebrated with devotion and fervor. rice field. The communal celebration of these festivals led to the coordination of lower levels of Hindu and Muslim societies at the social level and made an invaluable contribution to the building of well-organized nations, societies, and nations. In this way, Akbar sought to establish social unity by bringing the social ideals of Hindus and Muslims closer together, something none of his previous rulers had been able to achieve.
Establishing economic unity
Akbar’s goal was to establish a public welfare state in which all sectors of his subjects would participate. Akbar abolished the jizya and the pilgrimage tax and established a tax system based on equality. In the case of Octroy, President Akbar abolished a discriminatory system that imposed a tax of 5% on Hindus and 2.5% on Muslims. He reorganized the land income system to benefit the mostly Hindu cultivators. Akbar also paved the way for the country’s economic prosperity by managing business and trade. Akbar promoted various handicrafts in the country, which resulted in the country reaching the pinnacle of development and prosperity. In this way, Akbar introduced a unified taxation system throughout the empire and established an economic form of the empire, which led to a rapid rise in nationalist sentiments in the minds of people across sects. religion.
Establishing cultural unity
Akbar’s efforts led to the establishment of cultural unity throughout the empire and the development of Indo-Islamic culture. He made Persian the national language and set up a translation department. In 1583 AD, he not only translated “Tuzk-e-Baburi” into Persian by Abdulrahim Kankana, but also translated the Mahabharata (Razumnama), Gita, Ramayana, Scriptures, Koran, Atharvaveda, Panchatantra, etc. into Persian. and some Persian documents were translated into Sanskrit. I also had it translated.Abdul Qadir BadayuniRamayana‘ and ‘Singhasan Battis of the Fijianpanchatantra“Ka and Haji Ibrahim Sirhindine”Atharvaveda” was translated into Persian. ,Rajatarangini(“River of Kings”) was translated by Maulana Shah Mohammad Shahabadi.Zainur Abedin, ruler of KashmirRajatarangini” was translated into Persian.
Akbar also patronized and encouraged many of the court’s artists, poets, painters and musicians. The best Hindi books were written only in his time. Abdul Rahim Kankana was the premier Hindi poet at the court and was a close acquaintance of the great poet Tulcidas.Tulsi during Akbar’s reignRamcharitmanasSurdhas then composed an immortal song that expressed his devotion to Krishna.Mr Abul FazlAin I Akbari‘ and ‘Akbarnama” was composed.
In the field of art, Indian and Islamic styles have merged to create a new style. A unique example of this national style can be found in Fatehpur Sikri. Similarly, in the fields of painting and music, there was an adjustment and development of different artistic methods, bringing the Iranian, Islamic, and Hindu arts closer together. Akbar’s court had some outstanding painters and musicians, both Hindu and Muslim, who took the opportunity to develop new styles within Akbar’s free environment. Famous painter of Akbar’s court Abdul Samad was. besides this mill side aliDaswant, Basawan, Mukund A masterpiece by Akbar’s court painter, Bhasavan, is a painting of Majnu wandering through a deserted region on his emaciated horse. A famous singer of Hindustani music, Tansen was a disciple of the Sufi saint Mohammed Gauss and a renowned musician in Akbar’s court.
Thus, Akbar’s policy of political, social, religious, and economic integration and coordination makes it justified to call him emperor of the nation. In this state, all classes had equality, religious freedom, respect, and no discrimination on any grounds. Akbar was the emperor of all ranks and his goal was to make all ranks prosperous and happy. He began the great work of uniting the various classes to build a nation. In Indian history, he has been called great because he was the only emperor in the Middle Ages to do this work. Later rulers did not have the ability, foresight, or wealth to carry out this task.
Akbar deserves credit for taking this task seriously. Malleson’s statement is significant, “Given what he did in what era, we cannot help but accept that the emperor was one of the great figures God nationalized. Objection When there is, he will send us ‘to walk the path of peace and tolerance so that hundreds of thousands of people can attain happiness. In fact, Akbar’s greatness was also due to him becoming fully Indian.
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