Social and Economic Life of the Harappan Civilization | Social and Economic Life of the
Indus Valley Civilization
The family was the mainstay of social life in the Harappan civilization. Everyone in the family lived lovingly. The head of the family was considered to be the mother, that is, the society was matriarchal in the Harappan civilization. The excavations of Mohenjodaro give indications of social division. Probably the society was divided into four varnas – scholar-class, warriors, traders and craftsmen and workers.
- The learned class probably included priests, physicians, astrologers and magicians.
- The priests had a respected place in the society.
- On the basis of the diversity of the houses found in the Harappan civilization, some scholars have made the prevailing estimates of the social caste system.
- Due to the remains of swords, guard buildings and ramparts found in the excavation, it is estimated that there is a warrior class like Kshatriya.
- The third class includes traders and craftsmen such as stone cutters, diggers, weavers, goldsmiths, etc.
- In the last class, people associated with various other occupations such as workers, farmers, tanners, fishermen, etc.
Some scholars also estimate the prevalence of slavery in the Harappan civilization.
But S. R. Rao has not accepted the existence of slavery.
Woman’s place in Harappan civilization
Women held a very high position in the Harappan civilization. She was equal to men in all social and religious functions and festivals. Most of the women were associated with domestic work. The purdah system was not in vogue.
The food of the people of the Indus civilization
- Indus civilization used to eat both vegetarian and non-vegetarian food.
- Wheat, barley, rice, sesame, pulses were the main food grains.
- Vegetables, milk and various types of fruits, melon, watermelon, lemon, pomegranate, coconut etc. were consumed.
- In non-vegetarian food, pigs, sheep, goats, ducks, chickens, fishes, alligators etc. were eaten.
- Indus people used both cotton and woolen clothes.
- Women used to tie a bun and men had long hair and beard and mustache.