Contribution of North Indian Revolutionaries in Freedom Movement, Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad, Asfaq Ulla Khan, Sukhdev and Rajguru
The revolutionaries contributed the most in liberating India, it was the revolutionaries whose actions created fear in the minds of the British. Today we will remember such great revolutionaries through this blog.
|Photo Credit- WIKIPEDIA.ORG|
Many youth did not agree with the liberal policy of the Congress. The youth wanted to answer the British government in their own language and for this purpose, the revolutionaries of India first started organizing. The inspiration of these revolutionaries was the old revolutionaries – Ramprasad Bismil, Yogesh Chatterjee and Shachindranath Sanyal.
Shachindranath Sanyal’s book ‘Bandi Jeevan’ was no less than a book for the revolutionaries. This book was published in many languages. In October 1924, a conference of these revolutionary youth was held in Kanpur and ‘Hindustan Republic Association (or Army)’ was formed. The aim of this revolutionary organization was to overthrow the British power through armed revolution and establish a federal republic ‘United States of India’.
Before starting any struggle, it was necessary to spread awareness about it, so the revolutionaries first included courageous patriotic youth in their organization and it was necessary to collect weapons along with training.
Kakori incident 9 August 1925
Funds were needed to carry out the revolutionary activities. To fulfill this need, the ‘Hindustan Republican Army’ (HRA) carried out the first major action in Kakori. This famous incident of looting the government treasury is known as ‘Kakori Kand’. A group of ten revolutionaries
“On August 9, 1925, 16 km from Lucknow, a village ‘Kakori’ looted the government treasury by stopping an 8 down train (passenger train from Saharanpur to Lucknow). This treasury belonged to the railway department.”
The British government was very angry with this incident and a large number of youths were arrested (about 40 youths were arrested). The arrested youths were prosecuted.
Which revolutionaries were hanged in the Kakori incident?
Apart from the prominent revolutionaries arrested in the Kakori incident – Ashfaqullah Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Lahiri, Durga Bhagwati Chandra Vohra, Sachindra Bakshi, Chandrashekhar Azad, Vishnu Sharan Dublish, Keshav Chakraborty, Banwari Lal, Mukundi Lal, Shachindranath Sanyal and Manmathnath Gupta was involved. Apart from 29 of them, the rest were released. The trial was held against 29 people in the special magistrate’s court. The final verdict was delivered on April, 1927. Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan, Rajendra Lahiri, Thakur Roshan Singh were sentenced to life imprisonment, four were sent to Andaman and 17 others were given long sentences. Rajendra Lahiri was first hanged on December 17, 1927. Then on December 19, 1927, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqullah Khan and Thakur Roshan Singh were hanged. Two people had become government witnesses –
“Chandrasekhar Azad was successful in escaping”
Who formed the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association?
After the Kakori incident, the way the British government took repressive action against the revolutionaries, it did cause a blow, but it was not so big that it could break the spirits of the revolutionaries. Rather, after the incident, the enthusiasm of the youth to become a revolutionary doubled.
Vijay Kumar Sinha, Shiv Verma and Jaidev Kapoor in Uttar Pradesh and Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra and Sukhdev in Punjab began the work of reorganizing the ‘Hindustan Republican Army’ (HRA) under the leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad.
On 9 and 10 September 1928, the young revolutionaries of North India met at the Feroz Shah Kotla Maidan (Delhi). The young revolutionaries set their goal to establish socialism believing collective leadership. And ‘Hindustan Republican Army’ (HRA) was renamed as Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA).
Murder of saunders
The newly organized youth revolutionaries gradually started believing in organized revolutionary action, leaving behind murder and terror. But then something happened in India which once again forced the revolutionaries to follow the path of murder and terror.
In 1927, the British Government appointed Simon Commission (all members of which were British) to investigate the problems of India. This commission reached India in 1928. On 30 October 1928, while opposing the Simon Commission in Lahore, the famous leader of Punjab ‘Lala Lajpat Rai’ was brutally lathi-charged, which led to his death.
The young revolutionaries vowed to avenge the killing of a great leader like Lala Lajpat Rai, popularly known as Sher-e-Punjab. On 17 December 1928, Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad and Rajguru killed Saunders, a police officer who lathi-charged Lala Lajpat Rai in Lahore.
After the murder, posters were put up on behalf of H.S.R.A. on which it was written :-
“The killing of a beloved leader of millions by a soldier was an insult to the entire nation. It was the duty of young Indians to avenge it. We are saddened by Saunders’ murder, but he was part of the inhuman and unjust system that was to be destroyed. We are fighting.”
After this incident, ‘Hindustan Socialist Association’ decided to send a message to the public regarding its policies that their purpose has changed now, it believes in mass revolution instead of violence.
Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt throwing bombs in the Central Legislative Assembly
The British government at this time aimed at restricting the rights of the public, mainly the workers, two bills –
- Public Safety Bill and
- trade disputes bill
Was preparing to pass.
To oppose this bill, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were assigned the task of throwing bombs in the Central Legislative Assembly. The purpose of throwing this bomb was not to kill anyone, but to reach the voice of public protest to the ears of the deaf British government. It was not a dangerous bomb. It was a minor bomb. These people had written on the pamphlets they threw in the house.
“To make my voice reach the deaf ears of the government”. The purpose of throwing the bomb was to give his arrest and to make the court a medium of propagation of his ideology, so that the public could know his views and political philosophy.
Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutt were arrested and prosecuted. Later Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Rajguru and other revolutionaries were tried for indulging in many conspiracies. The statements made by these passionate young revolutionaries before the court would be published in the national newspapers the next day. He was promoted throughout the country.
Firm on their principles, fearless and audacious, these young revolutionaries used to enter and exit the court everyday raising slogans of ‘Inquilab Zindabad’.
Slogans of ‘imperialism murdabad’, ‘proletarian zindabad’ reverberated in the court. These passionate, fearless youth used to sing–
“We have the spirit of patriotism in our hearts now”
“Mera Rang De Basanti Chowla”.
These songs and slogans of these youths who were in shackles used to shake the public. Such people also came in his support who believed in non-violence. The name of Bhagat Singh was on the tongue of every Indian.
When were Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru hanged?
This saddest moment in Indian history came when on 23 March 1931, at around 7.33 pm, the three great revolutionaries – Bhagat Singh and his two companions Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged by the British government. The whole country was shocked by the news of the hanging. The whole country cried for these revolutionaries (I also got moist while writing), stoves did not burn in homes, children did not go to school. Sadness spread even in the remote villages.
Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru
How did revolutionary Jatin Das die?
There was now a lot of anger against the British government in the mind of the Indian public. The jailed revolutionaries were sitting on fast but the British government did not make any effort to improve the inhuman conditions.
The prisoners in the jail demanded that they should be treated as political prisoners, not criminals. Public support was being received from all over the country for these striking revolutionaries.
Revolutionary Jatin Das
Jatin Das, a jailed revolutionary who sat on a fast for 64 days, died on 13 September 1929. Hearing the news of the death, a wave of mourning spread throughout the country. His body was brought by train from Lahore to Calcutta. Wherever the train stopped, thousands of people would pay homage to this great revolutionary at every station. Lakhs of people gathered in Calcutta for the last glimpse of his body. There was a crowd of people 2 miles long in his last funeral procession. Long sentences were given to many revolutionaries in Lahore Conspiracy and many other such cases. Many people were sent to Andaman.
Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were hanged on 23 March 1931. Even on the gallows, these young men were singing revolutionary songs fearlessly full of enthusiasm.
Our heartfelt salute to such brave revolutionaries. Do share this article with your friends. Jai Hind