Salient Features of Indus Civilization’s Town Planning
The Indus civilization had a special city plan. All the sites of the Indus civilization that have been found have their own characteristics.
1- The Indus Civilization was a planned civilization, in which houses were made of paved bricks, roads cut each other at right angles, roads and streets were 9 to 34 feet wide and at some places ran straight for half a mile.
2- There was a public well in every street of Mohenjodaro and most of the houses had private wells and bathrooms. Like Sumer, even in Harappan cities, buildings did not encroach upon public roads anywhere.
Harappa is considered to be the second capital of the Indus Civilization.
4- Harappan cities were surrounded by ramparts on all four sides in which large entrances were made. The entrance gates at Surkotada and Dholavier were huge and beautiful.
5- There was a comprehensive plan of drainage. Under the main roads and lanes, there were drains covered with bricks and stones 1 to 2 feet deep and at some distances there were drains with a system for filtering the waste and drains.
6- The most famous road of 10.5 meters wide of Mohenjodaro is called the first road. On which seven wheeled vehicles could pass simultaneously. Other roads were 3.6 to 4 meters wide, while streets and aisles were 1.2 meters by 4 feet or more. No effort was made to make the roads and streets paved with bricks and mortar. The roads were full of dust and soil.
7 – Ornate bricks have been used on the floor of a house in Kalibanga.
8 – Every house of the Indus civilization had a kitchen and a bathroom.
9- Houses were built on stone foundations in Kotdiji and Allahdino.
10- Indus civilization is called Bronze Age civilization because the inhabitants of this civilization used to use bronze a lot. But copper was used the most. Bronze made chisel, knife, arrowhead, spear head, axe, fishing fork, saw, sword etc. were prominent. Among the bronze sculptures, small sculptures of dancers and dogs, bulls, birds, etc. obtained from Mohenjodaro are also notable.
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11- The first use of silver in India was done by the people of Indus civilization, the use of silver was more than gold.
For the first time in the world, cotton was used in the Harappan civilization itself.
13- 1200 currencies have been found in Mohenjodaro. The most famous and important one is the posture of Pashupati. In this, both the elephant and tiger rhinoceros and buffalo are shown in the yogi form seated on the seat, two deer or goats are shown on the lower side of Shiva’s seat, the marshal has described Shiva as Pashupati.
In another pose of Peepal, in another pose, the Goddess is shown naked among the branches of the Peepal tree. The worshiper is bowing down before the goddess and behind her is a goat with a human figure, seven devotees are dancing below.
14- In the Indus Civilization, the animal which has been marked on the coins the most, is the bull without a hump.
* An urn has been unearthed in Lothal, which probably had pictures of the story of a thirsty crow.
15- The people of Harappan civilization eat wheat, milk, greens-vegetables, pulses, lentils, round peas, oilseeds (mustard, linseed, sesame), coarse grains (jowar, millet, ragi,) and fruits, dates, grapes, vine etc. used in. Apart from this, bays used to eat pigs, sheep and cow meat. River fish and dried sea fish were also their food.
16- Evidence of the use of lipstick has been found from Chandoodaro.