Easter, Latin Pascha, Greek Pascha, the major festival of the Christian Church, which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after his crucifixion. The earliest recorded observance of the Easter celebration comes from the 2nd century, although the commemoration of the resurrection of Jesus probably took place earlier. Easter is celebrated on Sunday, April 17, 2022.
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The English word Easter, which is parallel to the German word Ostern, is of uncertain origin. A view propounded by the Venerable Bede in the 8th century was that it was derived from the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring and fertility or Istre. This view assumes – as is the idea of linking the origin of Christmas on December 25 with the pagan celebration of the winter solstice – that Christians appropriated pagan names and holidays for their highest festivals. The determination with which Christians fought all forms of paganism (belief in multiple gods) appears to be a dubious estimate. There is now widespread agreement that the term derives from the Christian designation of Easter week, as in albis, a Latin phrase understood to be the plural of alba (“morning”) and easter in Old High German, a precursor to modern German. had become. and English words. The Latin and Greek Pascha (“Passover”) provides the origin for Pâques, the French word for Easter.
Easter religious tradition
The fixation on the date on which the resurrection of Jesus was to be observed and to be celebrated triggered a great controversy in early Christianity in which an eastern and a western position could be distinguished. The disputes, known as the Pascal disputes, were not definitively resolved until the 8th century. In Asia Minor, Christians observed the day of crucifixion on the same day that Jews celebrated the Passover—that is, the 14th day after the first full moon of spring, 14 Nisan (see Jewish calendar). Then, the resurrection was celebrated two days later, on the 16th of Nisan, no matter what day of the week it was. The resurrection of Jesus in the West was celebrated on the first day of the week, Sunday, when Jesus rose from the dead. As a result, Easter was always celebrated on the first Sunday after the 14th day of the month of Nisan. Increasingly, churches opted for Sunday celebrations, and quartodecimons (supporters of the “14th Day”) remained in the minority. In 325 the Council of Nicaea decreed that Easter should be celebrated on the first Sunday after the first full moon after the vernal equinox (March 21). Therefore Easter can fall on any Sunday between March 22 and April 25.
The Eastern Orthodox Churches use a slightly different calculation based on the Julian rather than the Gregorian calendar (which is 13 days ahead of the former), resulting in an Orthodox Easter celebration usually followed by Protestants and Roman Catholics. In addition, Orthodox tradition prohibits Easter from being celebrated before or at the same time as Passover.
In the 20th century, several attempts were made to arrive at a fixed date for Easter, with the Sunday following the second Saturday in April being proposed. While this proposal and others had many supporters, none succeeded. The early 21st century saw renewed interest in a fixed date, resulting in the inclusion of leaders of the Eastern Orthodox, Syriac Orthodox, Coptic, Anglican, and Roman Catholic churches, but formal agreement on such a date remained elusive.
Passover, Fasting, Good Friday Traditions
In the Christian calendar, Easter follows Lent, a period of 40 days (not counting Sundays) before Easter, which is traditionally observed by acts of penance and fasting. Just before Easter comes Holy Week, which includes Maundy Thursday, a commemoration of Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples; Good Friday, the day of his crucifixion; and Holy Saturday, the transition between Crucifixion and Resurrection. Liturgically, Easter follows the Great Vigil, which was originally celebrated between sunset on Easter Saturday and sunrise on Easter Sunday. Later it will be celebrated in Western churches on Saturday evening, then on Saturday afternoon, and finally on Sunday morning. In 1955 the Roman Catholic Church set a vigil at 10 p.m., which allowed Easter Mass to be celebrated after midnight. In Orthodox traditions, vigil remains an important religious event, while in Protestant churches it is little known.
By the 4th century, the Easter vigil had become well established in various liturgical manifestations. It was characterized by a sense of joyful anticipation of the resurrection and – because of the belief that the second coming of Jesus would be at Easter – the return of Jesus. The vigil in Roman Catholic tradition consists of four parts: the Festival of Lights that centers on the Pascal candle; the service of lessons called prophecies; Administration of the sacraments of baptism and confirmation of adult converts; and Easter Mass. The use of the Pascal candle to signify the appearance of light out of darkness through resurrection was first recorded in the year 384; By the 10th century, it had gained general use. The prominence of baptism at Easter goes back to early Christianity, probably in the fourth century, when baptisms were performed only once a year on Easter. In a Roman Catholic service, the priest blesses the water to be used for baptism in the coming year, with the faithful taking some of that water with them to receive protection from vicissitudes. Various forms of this vigil service are used by the Lutheran and Anglican churches.
All Christian traditions have their own special significance for Easter. The Easter Sunrise Service, for example, is a typical Protestant observance in North America. This practice may be derived from the Gospel account of the resurrection of Jesus, which states that Mary Magdalene went to the tomb “while it was still dark” (John 20:1) or when it was dawn (Matthew 28:1 and Luke 24:1) It is a gaiety service that takes place at the rising of the sun to dispel darkness.
History of the Easter Egg and Bunny
Easter, like Christmas, has accumulated a lot of traditions, some of which have little to do with the Christian celebration of the Resurrection but derive from folk customs. The custom of the Easter lamb includes both the appellation used for Jesus in Scripture (see “Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world,” John 1:29) And the lamb (goat or lamb) as a sacrificial animal was used in ancient Israel. appropriates it. In ancient times, Christians placed sheep meat under the altar, blessed it, and then ate it at Easter. Since the 12th century, the Lenten fast at Easter has ended with food including eggs, ham, cheeses, bread, and sweets that have been blessed for the occasion.
The first recorded use of Easter eggs being painted and decorated was in the thirteenth century. The Church banned the eating of eggs during Holy Week, but chickens continued to lay eggs during that week, and the notion of identifying them as “Holy Week” eggs, in particular, adorned them. The egg itself became a symbol of resurrection. Just as Jesus rose from the tomb, the egg is a symbol of new life emerging from the eggshell. In the Orthodox tradition, the egg is painted red, symbolizing the bloodshed by Jesus on the cross.
Easter egg hunts are very popular among children throughout the United States. First Lady Lucy Hayes, wife of the President. Rutherford b. The first Easter Egg Roll on the White House Lawn (the beginning of a practice in which parents and their children gathered to roll eggs on the Monday after Easter), and it was held in 1878, is attributed to Hayes is given. That year the event was moved from the grounds of the US Capitol Building to the White House, wherein the early 1870s large numbers of children gathered to roll their eggs and play on Easter Monday. Members of Congress were frustrated by the large crowds on Capitol Hill and feared that foot traffic was damaging the grounds. Congress and President until 1876. Ulysses S. The practice was prevented from being celebrated by Grant by introducing legislation to end the practice of rolling eggs on Capitol Hill. Some historical records suggest that Hayes first opened the lawn of the White House for the egg rolling festival the following year in 1877 when a young boy asked President Hayes for permission to use the space directly.
The custom of associating the rabbit or bunny with Easter began in Protestant regions of Europe in the 17th century but did not become common until the 19th century. Easter rabbits are said to lay eggs as well as decorate and hide them. In the United States, the Easter Rabbit also leaves baskets with toys and candy to children on Easter morning. It is considered to be a manifestation of Protestant rejection of Catholic Easter rituals. In some European countries, however, other animals—cuckoos in Switzerland, foxes in Westphalia—bring Easter eggs.