Governor/Governor-General and Viceroy of India - Online History

Governor/Governor-General and Viceroy of India

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1- Robert Clive (1757-60 AD and 1765-67 AD)


  • Clive established dual government in Bengal.
  • He emerged as a hero of the British in the Battle of Plassey of 1767 AD.
  • He appointed two sub-diwans Raja Shitab Rai (Bihar) and Muhammad Raza Khan (Bengal) for the entire territory of Bengal. He took it under his dominion by making the treaty of Allahabad with the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam-II.


2-Warren Hastings (1772-85 AD)


  • As soon as he came to India, in 1772 AD, Warren Hastings ended the diarchy system introduced by Clive in Bengal.
  • He established the Board of Revenue and got the Treasury transferred from Murshidabad to Calcutta.
  • He appointed Munni Begum, the widow of Mir Jafar, as the guardian of the young Nawab Mubarik-ud-Daulah. His allowance was reduced from Rs 32 lakh to Rs 16 lakh.
  • He stopped the pension given to the Mughal emperor from AD 1765 to 26 lakh rupees annually.
  • To establish a satisfactory revenue system, he adopted the famous trial and error rule.
  • He established a civil and criminal court in each district in 1772. The civil courts were under the collector.
  • He established a Supreme Court at Calcutta under the provisions of Regulating 1773. During the tenure of Warren Hastings, a Board of Trade was formed in 1774 AD.
  • He hanged Nanda Kumar, a Brahmin from Bengal, on May 6, 1775, by implicating him in a false case. His crime was that he accused Hastings of accepting a bribe of Rs 3.5 lakh to make Mir Jafar’s widow the Nawab’s guardian.
  • In 1780, Warren Hastings annexed the kingdom of Raja Chait Singh of Banaras to the British Raj due to the non-fulfillment of the demand for maximum money.
  • Warren Hastings tried to make coins of specified type by discontinuing the coins already in use, for this he got a mint built in Calcutta.
  • The East India Company got a monopoly on the salt trade during the time of Warren Designs.
  • He suppressed the dacoits’ named Sanyasi during his reign.
  • According to a historical work titled Empire in Asia (Author-Torrens), Warren Hastings is considered guilty of misbehaving with the wife and mother of Shuja-ud-daula (late) Nawab of Awadh in his palace of Faizabad and robbing a treasure of 1.2 crore rupees from them.
  • Warren Hastings resigned in protest against Pitt’s India Act (1784 AD) and went to England in February 1785.
  • Warren Hastings established the first Madrasa Calcutta Madrasa in Calcutta in 1781 AD for the development of Muslim education.
  • During the reign of Warren Hastings, Jonathan Duncan established a Sanskrit school in Banaras in 1782 AD.
  • A Sanskrit translation of the book Code of Gentoo Laws was published in 1776 AD during the reign of Warren Hastings.
  • In 1781 AD, the Digest of Hindu Laws of William Jones and Colbook were published during the time of Warren Hastings.
  • Similarly, during the tenure of Warren Hastings, an attempt was made to translate the historical text Fatwa-e-Alamgiri into English.
  • Warren Hastings knew Arabic, Persian, and Bengali and wrote the preface to the first English translation of the Gita by Charles Wilkins.
  • Charles Wilkins invented casting letters for Persian and Bengali printing during the tenure of Warren Hastings.
  • Holhead published Sanskrit Grammar in 1778, which was also the tenure of Warren Hastings.
  • Specific facts – The Royal Asiatic Society was established to study the social and natural history, archeology, and science of Asia.
  •  William Jones founded the Royal Asiatic Society in Calcutta in 1784 under the tenure of Warren Hastings.
  • The Arabic Society was established in Bengal in 1784 during the tenure of Warren Hastings.
  • When Warren Hastings returned to England in 1785, he was impeached by the British Parliament.
  • ‘Fox’ and ‘Burke’ were prominent speakers among the accusers. In 1795, Hastings was acquitted of all charges of impeachment.


3-Lord Cornwallis (1786-93, 1798-1801, and 1805 AD)


  • In 1786, the Company sent Lord Cornwallis, a man of high lineage and aristocracy, to India as Governor-General under ‘Pitt’s India Act’.
  • Cornwallis concentrated all the power of the district in the hands of the collectors.
  • He abolished the ‘District Criminal Courts’ with Indian judges and established 4 Circuit courts in their place.
  • 3 traveling courts were constituted for Bengal while 1 was constituted for Bihar. The presidents of the above court were Covenanted Europeans and were assisted by Indian Qazis and Muftis.
  • A similar court was established in Calcutta in place of the Sadar Nizamat court at Murshidabad.
  • The Sadar Nizamat of Calcutta had the Governor-General and members of his council in the court.
  • The Governor-General had the right to pardon.
  • Cornwallis abolished both the police rights and responsibilities of the zamindars in rural areas.
  • Cornwallis implemented a system called Permanent Settlement in the field of land revenue in 1793 AD.
  • He completely banned the taking of bribes and gifts from officials and doing private business.
  • Lord Cornwallis is considered the father of civil service in India.


4-Sir John Shore (1793-98 AD)


  • Sir John Shore succeeded Cornwallis as Governor-General. He adopted a policy of neutrality and non-intervention.
  • The reputation of the company was damaged during his tenure and it was called back in 1798 AD.


5-Lord Wellesley (1798-1805 AD)


  • Lord Wellesley became famous for his ‘Subsidiary Alliance’.
  • Velajali made subsidiary treaties with Hyderabad (1798 AD), Mysore (1799 AD), Tanjore (1799 AD), Awadh (1801 AD), Peshwa (1801 AD), Berar and Bhonsle (1803 AD), and Scindia (1804 AD), etc. Of.
  • Apart from the above, the major states that made subsidiary treaties were Jodhpur, Jaipur, Machhedi, Bundi and Bharatpur.
  • Lord Wellesley sent Mehdi Ali Khan in 1799 AD and John Malle in 1800 AD to the court of the Shah of Iran.


 6-George Barlow (1805-07 AD)


  • After Wellesley, Lord Cornwallis again became Governor-General in 1805, but he died soon after. Thereafter George Barlow was appointed temporarily.
  • George Barlow adopted a policy of neutrality and ended the Company’s protection from the Rajput states of Rajputana.
  • The Sepoy Mutiny of Vellore took place during the tenure of George Barlow.


lord Cornwallis


  •     1st Mavis – Charles Cornwallis,
  •     1738 AD – Birth
  •   1781 AD – Arms were thrown against the Americans in Yorktown.
  •     Lord Lieutenant – He became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
  •     1786-93 AD – First term as Governor-General in India.
  •     1798-1801 AD – Second term as Governor-General in India.
  •     1805 AD – Third term as Governor-General in India
  •     1805 AD – He died.


Cornwallis Code


  • In 1793 AD, Lord Cornwallis presented his judicial reforms under this name. This code is based on the famous principle of the Separation of Powers.
  • Till that time, the collectors in the district had the powers of land revenue, justice, and Dandanayak. But Cornwallis separated the revenue administration from the judicial administration.
  • In this way, all rights were taken away from the collectors except revenue. Cornwallis formed a new category of officers in the district civil courts, who were appointed as District Judges, and also gave them the functions of criminal and police.


7-Lord Minto – I (1807-13 AD)


  • Lord Minto-I also adopted a policy of neutrality towards the native states.
  • He suppressed the revolts of Travancore and Madras.
  • An important event in its tenure was the passing of the Charter Act-1813, by which the British Parliament handed over the Company’s charter for the next 20 years.
  • But, now the company’s trading monopolies (except China and tea trade) were abolished.
  • During the tenure of Lord Minto, for the first time, 1 lakh rupees were provided for the system of education in India by Charter Act-1813 and thus Western education emerged in India.


8-Lord Hastings (1813-23 AD)


  • Lord Hastings fought 28 battles and won 120 forts.
  • He introduced the Mahalwari system in the area of ​​land revenue in Agra and Punjab.
  • During the tenure of Lord Hastings, the Governor of Madras, Thomas Munro introduced the Ryotwari system in Malabar, Kannada, Coimbatore, Madurai, and Dindigul in 1820.
  • During the tenure of Lord Hastings, the posts of collector and magistrate were re-merged by reshuffling the Cornwallis Code.
  • He removed government control over the press with some restrictions. As a result of which the first Hindi paper named Samachar Bhushan was published during his tenure.
  •  
    Lord Hastings got the Bengal Tennessee Act passed in 1822. It was determined by this that as long as the farmer is paying his rent, he will not be deprived of the land.

 

  9-Lord Amherst (1823-28 AD)

  • After the departure of Lord Hastings, ‘John Adams temporarily took the post of Governor-General for 7 months. Lord Amherst took over after Adams. 
  • During his tenure, the Anglo-Burma War-I (1824-26 AD) took place, in which the Treaty of Yandbu was signed. 
  • During his tenure in 1826 AD, the state of Bharatpur was merged with the British Empire.
  • During his reign in 1824, there was a military revolt of ‘Barrackpore’.


10-Lord William Bentinck (1828-35 AD)


  • The Charter Act-1833 was passed during the tenure of Lord William Bentinck.
  • Bentinck followed neutral policies towards Hyderabad, Jaipur, Jodhpur, and Bhopal and imperialist policies towards Mysore and Coorg.
  • Bentick, on the initiative of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, made a law in 1833 and declared the practice of Sati illegal, and with the help of Col.
  • He put an end to the practice of human sacrifice, especially prevalent in Madras and Orissa.
  • He abolished the practice of female-killing prevalent among the Rajputs through the Bengal Regulation Act.
  • He banned slavery by making a law in 1832 AD.
  • He made a law and restored the right of ancestral property to persons who converted from Hinduism to another religion. Bay
  • Tick ​​opened doors for Indians in government service, leaving the top positions.
  • Bentick stopped the export of opium from Karachi and started from Bombay with the aim of benefiting the company.
  • He established a Supreme Court of Appeal at Agra.
  • Bentinck ordered the use of provincial languages ​​in place of Persian in the courts.
  • In 1835, on the proposal of Lord Macaulay, Bentinck made English the medium of instruction in India.
  • In 1835, he established the Kolkata Medical College.
  • He planned the Upper Ganga Canal and established the Civil Engineering College for it.
  • The modern construction of the Grand Trunk Road connecting Calcutta and Delhi was done during his period.


Anglo-Afghan War-I


  • April 1839 AD – British forces captured Kandahar on the orders of Lord Auckland.
  • November 1839 AD – The then ruler Dost Muhammad was deposed and Shah Shuja was made the ruler.
  • 1841 AD – Revolt of Akbar Khan, son of friend Muhammad.
  • 1841 AD – Treaty of British with Akbar Khan.
  • January 1842 AD – Fierce attack by Afghan rebels on the returning British army.


11-Charles Metcalf (1835-36 AD)


  • He removed all kinds of restrictions from newspapers during his temporary tenure of one year. That is why he is called the ‘Liberator of the Indian Press’.


12-Lord Auckland (1836-42 AD)


  • Anglo-Afghan War-1 (1839-42 AD) was fought during his tenure.
  • In the First Anglo-Afghan War, due to the attack of the Afghan rebels on the returning British army, only 120 soldiers could return in 15 thousand. This brought huge discredit to the British and Lord Auckland.
  • In 1839, he got the ‘Grand Trunk Road’ repaired.


13-Lord Ellenborough (1842-44 AD)


  • During his reign, the British flag was hoisted over Kabul (the capital of Afghanistan) in 1842 and the First Anglo-Afghan War ended.
  • Along with this, the horrific defeat of the British army by Akbar Khan at Vemru and the attack by Afghan rebels on the returning soldiers were also avenged.
  • Dost Muhammad was freed from captivity and sent back to Afghanistan.
  • During the reign of Elinborough, Sindh was completely merged with the British Raj in 1843 AD.


14-Lord Hardinge (1844-48 AD)


  • Anglo-Sikh War – 1 (1845-46 AD) concluded.
  • During his reign, the practice of ‘narbli’ was completely banned.


15-Lord Dalhousie (1848-56 AD)


  • Lord Dalhousie is famous in history because of the doctrine of lapse.
  • Under his imperialist policies, Lord Dalhousie merged Punjab (1849 AD), Lower Burma or Pegu (1858 AD), Sikkim (1850 AD), Brar (1853 AD) and Awadh (1856 AD), etc. into his empire.
  • He got the Bengal artillery transferred from Calcutta to Meerut.
  • During his tenure, the headquarters of the army was made at Shimla. Shimla grew in importance and became the government’s headquarters for more than half a year.
  • Dalhousie formed an irregular army in Punjab and also increased the number of Gorkha regiments.
  • In 1852, Dalhousie set up an Inam Commission with the aim of finding and snatching away land-tax-free jagirs.
  • Dalhousie accepted the proposal of teaching in Indian languages ​​according to Thomson’s arrangement in 1853.
  • Dalhousie implemented Wood’s Despatch in the field of education in 1854 AD, under the instructions of Charles Wood (the then head of the Board of Control).
  • According to the ‘Wood’s Dispatch, which is the cornerstone of the modern education system, several colleges and one university each in the Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras presidencies were established. 
  • Lord Dalhousie started India’s first train from Bombay to Thane in 1853.
  • He got many railway lines surveyed till 1856 AD and started construction work on many.
  • By 1854, the railway line was laid from Calcutta to Raniganj coalfield.
  • Dalhousie started the electric telegraph system for the first time in India in 1852 AD and appointed O’shangh-Nessy as the superintendent of the Electricity Telegraph Department.
  • Improving this system according to the Post Office Act of 1854 AD, Dalhousie appointed one Director General each in of the three Presidencies.
  • Dalhousie started the practice of postal stamps for the first time in India. Now letters could be sent from anywhere in the country at the rate of 2 paise.
  • Dalhousie established a Public Works Department (PWD) for the first time in India.
  • Lord Dalhousie opened the Ganga-Canal to the public on April 8, 1854, after the completion of the work.
  • In 1854, Dalhousie started the construction of the Bari-Doab canal in Punjab.
  • Dalhousie got the Grand Trunk Road repaired.
  • Dalhousie opened the ports of India to international trade.
  • Dalhousie established an independent Public Service Department in 1854.
  • The practice of competitive examinations for civil services was introduced for the first time during Dalhousie’s reign.


Specific Facts – Lord Dalhousie’s famous Railway Minute became the basis for the future expansion of railways in India.

Lord Canning (1856-62 AD)


  • Lord Canning became the Governor-General of India in 1856.
  • The revolt of 1857 took place during his reign.
  • Lord Canning was the first Viceroy of India under the British Emperor in 1858.
  • During Canning’s reign, the Indian High Court Act was passed and this arrangement was made for one High Court each in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras.
  • The Widow Remarriage Act-1856 was passed during Canning’s reign.
  • The Indian Penal Code, proposed by Macaulay, was made a law in 1858.
  • During the reign of Canning, the Department of Education was opened under the control and control of education.
  • There was a severe famine in 1861 during Canning’s reign.
  • In 1859-60, there were fights between the Europeans growing indigo and the farmers of Bengal. Lord Canning set up an Indigocommission to settle the dispute.
  • Canning introduced currency notes and encouraged the cultivation of tea in Assam and coffee in the Nilgiris.
  • The Bengal Rent Act was passed in 1856 during Canning’s tenure. Under this, those farmers who had been plowing a field for 12 years got their rights.


Viceroy of India from 1862 to 1884 AD


  • After Canning, Lord Elgin became the Viceroy of India in 1862 AD. He suppressed the Bahawi movement during his tenure.
  • After the death of Elligan in 1863, Lord Lawrence became the Viceroy in 1864.
  • During Lawrence’s tenure, Bhutan was invaded in 1865 AD, as a result of which the British fought with Bhutan and after that, a treaty was signed.
  • A policy of spectacular passivity was adopted by Lawrence in Afghanistan.
  • During Lawrence’s tenure, a Famine Commission was constituted under the chairmanship of Chembavale.
  • In 1865, Lawrence started the first maritime telegraph service between India and Europe.
  • Lord Mayo became the Viceroy of India after Lawrence in 1869. He established Mayo College in Ajmer. He followed the policy of financial decentralization in India.
  • Mayo established an independent agriculture department in 1872.
  • The experimental census was conducted in India for the first time during the reign of Mayo in 1872.
  • In 1872, an Afghan youth stabbed Mayo to death in the Andaman.
  • After Mayo, Lord Northbrook became the Viceroy of India in 1872 AD. During his reign, Malhar Rao Gaikwad, the ruler of Baroda, was deposed in the name of misgovernance and corruption.
  • The famous Kuka movement of Punjab took place during the reign of Lord Northbrook.
  • The opening of the Suez Canal during the reign of Northbrook led to a huge increase in Indo-British trade.


Lord Lytton (1876-80 AD)


  • He was a noted poet, novelist, and essay writer and was known in the literary world as Owen Meredith.
  • During his reign, there were severe famines in Madras, Bombay, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Central India during the period 1876-78. He set up a Draft Commission under the chairmanship of Richard Strachey.
  • In spite of the above famines, Lytton removed the import duty on 29 trade goods and adopted the policy of free trade which benefited England.
  • During the reign of Lord Lytton, international smuggling of salt ended and the income of the British government increased.
  • The British Parliament passed the Royal Titles Act-1876 during his reign. According to this, considering Queen Victoria was the Empress of India, she was to be honored with the title of Kaiser-e-Hind.
  • For the purpose of the above, Lytton organized a grand court in Delhi on January 1, 1877, and spent a lot of money on it.
  • In 1878, he passed the Indian Arms Act and prohibited the possession and trade of arms by Indians without a license.
  • In 1878-79, the scheme of Statutory Civil Service was introduced and under this, the maximum age limit was reduced from 21 to 19 years, reducing the opportunity for Indians in the competitive examination to be held in London for appointment to higher posts. Gone |
  • Lord Lytton established an Anglo-Muslim oriental college in Aligarh.
  • Indian Language Newspapers Act-1878 (Vernacular Press Act) Passed in March 1878, under Article 9 of this Act, the press was banned from printing such things which go against the British government and causing a feeling of rebellion among the public. Are you flourishing?
  • Specific fact- Satyendra Nath Tagore was the first Indian to be recruited in the ‘Bharatiya Janpad Seva’. He got the appointment in 1864 AD.

Lord Ripon (1880-1884 AD)


  • Lord Ripon first restored the freedom of the press in 1882 AD by abolishing the ‘Vernacular Press Act.
  • The maximum age limit in civil service was increased from 19 years to 21 years during Ripon’s rule.
  • Local Self Government was initiated during the reign of Lord Ripon.
  • The first regular census of India was conducted in 1881 AD during the reign of Ripon. The practice of a regular census every 10 years has been going on since then.
  • The first Factories Act was enacted by Ripon in 1881.
  • Ripon set up a commission under the chairmanship of William Hunter to make recommendations for reforms in the education sector.
  • The Ilbert Bill controversy took place in 1883-84 during the tenure of Lord Ripon.
  • Lord Ripon was called the savior of India by Florence Nightingale and his reign was called the golden period of the British era in India.
  • Ilbert Bill controversy – In the past, the cases of Europeans were not heard by Indian judges. To end this discrimination, one of Ripon’s council members, C.P. Ilbert introduced a bill, on which the British revolted. This is the White Rebellion. (White Revolt). As a result, the Ilbert Bill had to be withdrawn.
  • Viceroy from 1884 AD to 1947 AD
  • After Lord Ripon, in 1884, Lord Dufferin (1884-88 AD) became the Governor-General. During his reign the Anglo-Burma War-III (1885-88 AD) took place and Burma was completely annexed to the British Raj.
  • The main event of Dufferin’s tenure was the establishment of the Indian National Congress on 28 December 1885.
  • In 1888 AD, Lord Lansdowne (1888-94 AD) became the Viceroy of India. During his tenure, the boundaries between India and Afghanistan were determined in the form of Rand Rekha.
  • After Lansdowne, Lord Elgin-II (1894-99 AD) became the Viceroy. “India has been conquered by the sword, and it will be defended by the sword” was the statement given by him.


Lord Curzon (1899-1905 AD)


  • After Elgin-11, Lord Curzon became the Viceroy of India in 1899 AD.
  • He established a police commission in 1902 under the chairmanship of Sir Edu Fraser. It submitted its report in 1903.
  • Lord Curzon passed the Indian Universities Act in 1904.
  • He set up a Famine Commission under the chairmanship of Sir Antony MacDonnell in 1899-1900.
  • In 1901, he set up an Irrigation Commission under the chairmanship of Sir Colin Scott Moncrief to investigate the complete question of irrigation.
  • In 1904, he got the Co-operative Credit Society Act passed.
  • An Imperial Agriculture Department was established during the reign of Lord Curzon. A department has also been set up for commerce and industry.
  • Most of the railway lines were also built during the reign of Curzon, during this period Thomas Robertson (a railway expert) suggested the establishment of the Railway Board.
  • A college was opened in Quetta on the lines of Camberley College in England for the training of military officers.
  • Specific Facts – According to the Indian Coinage and Currency Act, passed in 1899, the British pound was made acceptable in India. All this happened during the reign of Curzon.
  • Curzon reduced the number of elected members of the corporation under the Calcutta Corporation Act of 1899, and the number of Englishmen in the corporation and its other committees was increased.
  • In 1904, he passed the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, an act aimed at the repair, replacement, and protection of ancient monuments in India, and earmarked £50,000 for the repair of ancient monuments in India.
  • Lord Kitchener established the Imperial Cadet Corps for the armies of the native monarchs in 1900 AD during the reign of Lord Curzon.
  • Lord Curzon passed the Mines Act and the Assam Labor Act to protect the interests of the working class.
  • In October 1905, he divided Bengal into two parts. On which there was a strong reaction and there was a dissolution movement.
  • Curzon succeeded in preventing the growth of Russian influence in Tibet during his reign.
  • After the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, the Victoria Memorial Hall was built in her memory by Lord Curzon in Calcutta.


 Lord Minto (1905-1910 AD)


  • During his reign, the Anglo-Russian treaty was concluded in 1907 on the question of Tibet.
  • During his tenure, through the Morley-Minto Reform Act, 1909, a separate electorate was arranged for the Muslims. There was a wide response to this.


Lord Hardinge-II (1910-1915 AD)


  • During his reign, the Delhi Durbar held on December 12, 1911, announced the transfer of the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi, and in 1912, Delhi again became the capital of India.
  • On 23 December 1912, Lord Hardinge was attacked with a bomb in Delhi.
  • During his reign, World War I started. During his reign, Firoz Shah Mehta and Ganesh Shankar Vidyarthi published Bombay Chronicle and Pratap respectively.
  • In 1916, Lord Hardinge was appointed as the Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University.


Lord Chelmsford (1916–1921 AD)


  • During her reign, a women’s university was established in Poona in 1916.
  • The Sadler Commission on Education was formed during his tenure.
  • During his reign, the Jallianwala Bagh (Amritsar) massacre took place on April 13, 1919.
  • The Anglo-Afghan War-III took place during the tenure of Chelmsford.


Lord Reading (1921-1926 AD)


  • During his reign, the Prince of Wales visited India in November 1921. On this day a strike was organized all over India.
  • During his reign, Visva Bharati University started functioning in 1922 AD.
  • In 1921, M.N. Roy formed the Communist Party of India.
  • The famous Arya Samaj nationalist leader Swami Shraddhanand was assassinated in 1925. This happened only during the reign of Reading.


Lord Irwin (1926-1931 AD)


  • During his reign, the Simon Commission came to India in 1928.
  • During his reign, Jatindas died in jail due to a hunger strike for 64 days.


Lord Wellington (1931–1936 AD)


  • During his reign, the Round Table Conference-II was organized in London.
  • During his reign, British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald announced the Communal Award.
  • The Round Table Conference-III was also organized during his reign in 1932.
  • The Government of India Act-1935 was passed during his reign.
  • During his reign, in 1934, a severe earthquake occurred in Bihar.


Lord Linlithgow (1936-1943 AD)


  • During his reign, elections to the provincial assembly were held for the first time.
  • Governments of the Indian National Congress were formed in 7 out of 11 provinces.
  • The Second World War started on September 1, 1939, when Indians were thrown out without taking permission from them.
  • The provincial ministries of the Congress resigned in protest of the Indians being thrown into the above war.
  • During his reign in 1940, Pakistan was demanded for the first time in the Lahore session.
  • During his reign, there was a terrible famine in Bengal in 1943.


Lord Wavell (1944-1947 AD)


  • During his tenure, Shimla Agreement was signed in 1945.
  • During his tenure, on February 20, 1947, Prime Minister Clement Attlee announced in the House of Commons that the power of India would be transferred to the Indians by June 1948.


Lord Mountbatten March (1947-June, 1948 AD)


  • During his tenure, the Indian Independence Bill was presented by Prime Minister Attlee on July 4, 1947.
  • The above Bill was adopted on 18 July 1947. Under this, two independent nations were born, India and Pakistan.


specific facts


  • The first and last foreign/British governor of independent India was General Lord Mountbatten.
  • The last Viceroy of India was Lord Mountbatten.
  • The first and last Indian governor of independent India was General Chakravarti Rajagopalachari.
  • The East India Company appointed four governors in Bengal from 1757 to 1772.
  • Under the Regulating Act of 1773, the Governor of Bengal was made the Governor-General of Bengal, and the governors of Madras and Bombay were subordinated to him.
  • Warren Hastings got the privilege of becoming the first Governor-General of Bengal in 1774 AD.
  •  According to the provisions of the Charter Act in 1833, the Governor-General of Bengal was made the Governor-General of India.
  • Lord William Bentinck got the privilege of becoming the first Governor-General of India.
  • The Governor-General was given the title of Viceroy by the Act, 1858, after which this post was called by this name.
  • Lord Canning got the privilege of becoming the first Viceroy of India. He was the last Governor-General of subordinate India.
  • The company made Clive (1757 – 60 AD), Barellast (1765 –67 AD), Cartier (1769 – 72 AD), and Warren Hastings (1772 – 1774 AD) governors till 1772 AD.
  • But only Clive and Warren Hastings were important in the above.

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