Causes and Consequences of the American Civil War
The American Civil War began on April 12, 1861. At the time of the start of the American Civil War, both sides misjudged each other’s power, so the war lasted 4 years and ended only when the people of the South were exhausted.
Therefore, the reason for the animosity between them was also that the policies which were beneficial for the northern part were harmful for the southern part. Due to the agrarian economy, the southern people wanted to keep the slavery system with vested interests, while the northern people wanted to end it considering it to be against divine law. Apart from these, due to many other differences, where the southern people wanted to secede from the American Federation, while the northern people wanted to prevent the dissolution of the union.
At the time of this conflict situation, America’s famous patriotic leaders George Washington, Hamilton and Thomaser Juronson etc. had died. The American leaders after them had merit but the feeling of devotion towards the country was little. There are differences of opinion among historians about the responsibility of the war. Some historians consider the north responsible for this civil war on the basis that some anti-slavery organizations were formed, independent land parties were formed and other anti-South works, while some historians blame the south for the civil war on this basis. It is believed that there were attacks on the anti-slavery people and the violent tendency of the southern people was also responsible for the war.
Major Causes of the American Civil War
1. Prolonged cause
The conflict between the northern and southern parts of the United States led to civil war. The differences between the northern and southern parts were on the following questions:
- The Question of Slavery, 1820
- Texas merger question
- war of mexico
According to Elson, the fundamental cause of the civil war was the conflicting facts about slavery in the North and the South.
The slave owners of the South gave such arguments and works to protect the slavery system, which created distrust and anger in the hearts of the people of the North. The Southerners justified it as the basis of a holy life, the protection of slaves and the supremacy of white people.
The northern people opposed the system of slavery as based on selfish tendencies against divine law, against the declaration of equality and freedom and as a hindrance to the progress of the South. Because of these arguments, neither side was ready to bow down. On the growing influence of slavery, an American said in a sarcastic tone, “The light of the stars and the red rays of influence should be erased from the American flag and it should be inscribed with drapes and shackles.”
3. Political Rhetoric
The arguments and slogans of the leaders of the North and the South aroused a sense of fear and high and low on both sides. The abolitionist movement of slavery created fear in the South that it would break the historical labor system and start caste conflicts.
On the other hand, the South’s support of slavery caused leaders like Lincoln of the North to fear that slavery could engulf the entire country. Various journalists, clergy and politicians from the north exaggerated the evils of slavery. Thus the background for the civil war was set.
4. The Election of Lincoln
As a result of the split of the Democratic Party in the presidential election of 1860, Republican candidate
|Abraham Lincoln-image credit-pixaby.com
Abraham Lincoln was victorious, who had given importance to the question of slavery in the election. Lincoln’s conquest worried the southern states, that the new government would destroy their institutions and distinctive civilization. This feeling inspired the southern states to break away from the Union.
5. Mistakes of Slave Owners
The slave owners of the South audaciously flouted the Constitution. He made some mistakes before leaving the union and starting the war, which are as follows –
- Didn’t measure his power.
- Took ties with northern friends.
- Ignoring the federal spirit.
- They forgot that they could not get foreign aid and recognition on the question of slavery.
- separation of states
American civil war vintage envelope old stained- IMAGE CREDIT PIXABY
Lincoln’s victory fell like a thunderbolt on the kingdoms of the south. He initiated proceedings to secede from the Union and argued that “the United States of America is a federation of sovereign states, so states can secede from the Union at will.”
South Carolina declared its independence on December 20, 1860. Soon the Mississippi, Florida, Alwana, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas and other states seceded from the Union to form the Southern Confederation. The Confederation convened the United Connection in Montgomery (Alwana). Adopted a provisional constitution and elected a provisional (provisional) President and Vice-President. The northern states declared this action a rebellion.
6. Defense of the Union
A notable feature of the Civil War was that the southern states were breaking away from the Union to protect slavery, while the northern states were waging war to defend the Union.
7. Economic Goals
The northern states were committed to safeguarding economic interests. For this reason, Lincoln received more support from the farmers of the Middle West.
Significance of America’s Civil War
- The war resulted in widespread massacres on both sides.
- According to Elson, the total war expenditure was just over $10 billion.
- There was economic destruction of the South.
- Slavery ended. In 1865, the Senate accepted the amendments to the emancipation of slavery in the constitution.
- State sovereignty ended.
- Industrial expansion increased and technical system developed.
- Right-hungry people had a bad effect on the social condition of the country.
- The Republican Party’s monopoly on the federal government increased.
According to H. W. Elson, this war was a surgery that was painful, but was absolutely necessary for the healthy life of a nation, and the result proved to be a boon to the United States of America. After the war, the feeling of unity strengthened in the country and the place of self-exploitation became a practical ‘permanent truth’.
Consequences of the American Civil War
The American Civil War was an important event in American history. After this civil war, a new era emerged in America. Creativity was also rooted in the devastation of this civil war. This civil war affected the political, economic and social nature of America to a great extent, which is described as –
1. Political Consequences – This civil war strengthened America’s political position by resolving the long-standing provincial and federal dispute. Under the 14th and 15th Articles of the Constitution, the slaves also got the right to vote along with the civil rights. According to H. C. Parkins, “The victory of the North in the Civil War strengthened the forces of national unity and gave the ultimate defeat to the doctrine of the rights of the states.”
2. Industrial progress – The way for industrial progress was paved in America only after the Civil War. The result of industrial progress was that city building, transportation and rail industry developed in America. It was only as a result of industrial progress that America later moved towards capitalism. In the field of agriculture too, production increased due to the use of new agricultural technology.
3. Social Consequences – The most important social result of the civil war was that after the war, the hearts of the people of North and South got mixed together. After the war, 5 lakh soldiers made during the war, were found among the general public as if nothing had happened. After the war, only 25,000 soldiers were kept in the regular army. Another social result was that efforts were made to improve the condition of the workers and to educate them. This led to the development of new social values in America.
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