Share This Post With Friens

The Pulwama attack was a terrorist attack that shocked the entire India. On 14 February 2019, terrorists loaded explosives in a van and rammed it into a CRPF bus in Pulwama, Kashmir, carrying out a deadly attack. 40 soldiers were martyred in the attack. If you want to know the history and events related to the Pulwama attack, then read this article till the end so that you can know what were the results of its investigation and why is Black Day celebrated on this day.

WhatsApp Channel Join Now
Telegram Group Join Now
Pulwama Attack - History, Events, Investigation, Results, Black Day

Pulwama Attack Introduction

The 2019 Pulwama attack took place on February 14, 2019, when a convoy of vehicles carrying Indian security personnel was targeted by a suicide bomber on the Jammu–Srinagar National Highway in Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir. The attack, carried out by a local Kashmiri youth named Adil Ahmad Dar, resulted in the deaths of 40 Indian Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel along with the perpetrator.

Jaish-e-Mohammed, a Pakistan-based Islamist terrorist group, claimed responsibility for the attack. India accused Pakistan of involvement, leading to heightened tensions between the two countries and the 2019 India–Pakistan military standoff. Indian investigations later identified 19 suspects, with some killed and others arrested by August 2021.

Before the attack, the Indian government reportedly received at least eleven intelligence warnings from various sources, including the Intelligence Bureau and Kashmir Police, which were allegedly ignored. Satya Pal Malik, the governor of Jammu and Kashmir at the time, claimed in an interview that Prime Minister Narendra Modi instructed him to refrain from discussing security lapses by the administration.

Background of Attack

The Kashmir region has been a longstanding source of conflict between India and Pakistan, with both nations asserting control over different parts of it. This dispute has led to an insurgency in the portion of Kashmir administered by India since the late 1980s, with accusations of Pakistan supporting the insurgents. The ongoing conflict has resulted in a substantial loss of life, with estimates suggesting approximately 70,000 casualties since 1989 due to the uprising and subsequent actions by the Indian government.

Since 2015, militants based in Pakistan and operating in Kashmir have increasingly resorted to high-profile suicide attacks targeting Indian security forces. In July 2015, three gunmen launched an assault on a bus and police station in Gurdaspur. In early 2016, four to six gunmen attacked the Pathankot Air Force Station. Subsequent attacks in February and June 2016 resulted in the deaths of nine and eight security personnel respectively in Pampore.

In September 2016, four assailants struck an Indian Army brigade headquarters in Uri, claiming the lives of 19 soldiers. Another attack occurred on December 31, 2017, targeting the Commando Training Centre at Lethpora, where five security personnel lost their lives. These incidents occurred in the vicinity of the Kashmir region.

Pulwama Attack - History, Events, Investigation, Results, Black Day

Pulwama Attack Date and Year

On February 14, 2019, a convoy consisting of 78 vehicles was transporting over 2,500 Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) personnel from Jammu to Srinagar along National Highway 44. The convoy departed from Jammu at approximately 03:30 IST and was carrying an unusually large number of personnel because the highway had been closed for two days prior. The convoy’s intended arrival at its destination was scheduled before sunset.

At Lethpora near Awantipora, around 15:15 IST, a car carrying explosives rammed into a bus transporting security personnel. The explosion resulting from the collision claimed the lives of 40 CRPF personnel from the 76th Battalion and caused injuries to numerous others. The wounded were promptly evacuated to the army base hospital in Srinagar for medical treatment.

Jaish-e-Mohammed, a Pakistan-based militant group, claimed responsibility for the attack. They also circulated a video featuring the assailant, Adil Ahmad Dar, a 22-year-old from Kakapora who had joined the group a year earlier. Dar’s family last saw him in March 2018, when he left home on a bicycle and did not return. Pakistan denied involvement, despite the known presence of Jaish-e-Mohammed’s leader, Masood Azhar, in the country. This attack stands as the deadliest on India’s state security personnel in Kashmir since 1989.

Must Read This Hindi ArticlePulwama Attack Black Day 2024 | पुलवामा आतंकी हमले की पांचवीं बरसी

Perpetrator: Adil Ahmad Dar

The perpetrator behind the attack was identified as Adil Ahmad Dar, a 22-year-old resident of Kakapora. According to Dar’s parents, his radicalization stemmed from alleged mistreatment by Indian police. Records indicate that between September 2016 and March 2018, Dar was apprehended by Indian authorities six times, yet he was released without charges each time.

Intelligence Inputs Ignore by the Indian Government

The Central Government had received at least 11 intelligence inputs, sourced from the Intelligence Bureau and Kashmir Police, in the days leading up to the attack. Additionally, two days before the incident, Jaish-e-Mohammed uploaded a video showcasing a suicide attack in Afghanistan, with implications of a similar assault in Kashmir. Despite these warnings, the Home Ministry opted not to provide CRPF aircraft on the day of the attack, choosing instead to allow the convoy to proceed via road route, thereby disregarding the intelligence inputs.

Investigation and Result

Following the attack, the National Investigation Agency (NIA) mobilized a 12-member team to conduct a thorough investigation in collaboration with the Jammu and Kashmir Police.

Preliminary findings indicated that the car involved in the attack was laden with over 300 kilograms (660 lb) of explosives, including 80 kilograms (180 lb) of RDX, a potent high explosive, and ammonium nitrate. Lieutenant General Hooda suggested that the explosives might have been pilfered from a construction site. Initially, he dismissed the possibility of smuggling them from across the border but later acknowledged that it couldn’t be ruled out.

The NIA successfully confirmed the identity of the suicide bomber through DNA analysis, matching the samples extracted from the scant remains of the car used in the attack with those provided by Adil Ahmad Dar’s father. However, even after a year-long investigation, the source of the explosives remained elusive.

In August 2020, the NIA filed a charge sheet naming 19 individuals as accused in connection with the attack.

In the wake of the attack, state funerals were held for the security personnel killed in their respective native places, honoring their sacrifice.

The government of Punjab announced ex gratia compensation of ₹12 lakh (US$15,000) each to the families of the deceased security personnel from the state, along with offering government jobs to their next of kin.

India responded decisively on the diplomatic front by revoking Pakistan’s most favored nation status. Additionally, the customs duty on all Pakistani goods imported into India was raised to 200%.

In a significant move, the government of India urged the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) to designate Pakistan as a blacklisted country. However, the FATF decided to maintain Pakistan on its ‘grey list’ and granted it an extension until October 2019 to fulfill the 27 conditions outlined in June 2018. Failure to comply would result in Pakistan’s addition to the blacklist.

On February 17, the state administration revoked security provisions for separatist leaders, signaling a shift in policy toward handling dissent in the region.
The Pulwama attack triggered widespread protests, bandhs (strikes), and candlelight marches across India, with citizens expressing solidarity and mourning for the fallen security personnel.

In Jammu, violent protests erupted, leading to the imposition of a curfew starting from February 14 to maintain order.

The Indian community in the United Kingdom demonstrated outside the Pakistan High Commission in London, voicing their outrage over the attack.

In a show of diplomatic response, a delegation of Indian doctors canceled their scheduled visit to Pakistan for the 13th Association of Anaesthesiologists Congress in Lahore.

On the cultural front, Indian broadcaster DSport announced the discontinuation of broadcasting Pakistan Super League cricket matches.

The All Indian Cine Workers Association announced a ban on Pakistani actors and artists in the Indian film industry. They declared that strict action would be taken against any organization violating this directive. Additionally, the Indian Film and Television Directors Association enforced a similar ban on Pakistani artists in Indian film and music productions, with the president of the organization warning of potential disruption to film sets featuring Pakistani talent.

Prisoner’s Death in Indian Jail

On February 20, 2019, a Pakistani prisoner named Shakarullah, serving a life sentence in India’s Jaipur Central Jail under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, was brutally attacked by four other inmates. Shakarullah was stabbed and beaten to death during the altercation.

India asserted that Shakarullah’s demise occurred during a scuffle among the inmates over the volume of a television. However, Pakistan contended that the killing was a retaliatory act in response to the Pulwama attack.

The incident further escalated tensions between the two nations, exacerbating the already strained relationship stemming from the Pulwama tragedy.

Gunfight with Militants

Acting on intelligence inputs, in the early hours of February 18, a joint operation involving 55 Rashtriya Rifles, CRPF, and the Special Operations Group of India was conducted in Pulwama. The operation resulted in the killing of two terrorists and two of their associates in an anti-terrorism encounter.

Among the slain militants was Abdul Rasheed Ghazi, also known as Kamran, identified as a Pakistani national and believed to be the mastermind behind the Pulwama attack. Ghazi was identified as a commander of the terrorist group Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM).

Additionally, Hilal Ahmed, a local recruit of JeM, along with two sympathizers who sheltered Ghazi and Ahmed to evade capture, were also neutralized during the encounter. Tragically, four security personnel lost their lives in the gunfight, highlighting the risks involved in counter-terrorism operations.

Also ReadLal Krishna Advani Biography- Early Life, Education, Family, Career, Bharat Ratna 2024

Anti-Kashmiri Backlash

In the aftermath of the attack, Kashmiri students residing in various parts of India encountered a disturbing backlash, including incidents of violence, harassment, and eviction from their accommodations. Many Indians, however, responded with compassion and solidarity, offering housing to those displaced Kashmiris.

Reports emerged of hundreds of Kashmiris fleeing from other parts of India due to the escalating tensions. The Jammu and Kashmir Students Organisation revealed that 97% of Kashmiri students in Dehradun had been evacuated, while two colleges in the city declared a halt on admitting new Kashmiri students. Furthermore, Alpine College suspended its Kashmiri dean following calls for his dismissal by certain groups.

Tathagata Roy, the governor of Meghalaya, sparked controversy by endorsing a boycott of “everything Kashmiri,” a sentiment opposed by Union Minister Ravi Shankar Prasad. Instances of violence against Kashmiris, such as the assault on a Kashmiri merchant in Kolkata, drew condemnation from political figures like West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee.

In response to the escalating situation, Kashmir police chief Dilbagh Singh appealed to affected states to ensure the safety of Kashmiri students. Former Jammu and Kashmir chief minister Omar Abdullah sought assistance from Rajnath Singh, India’s Minister of Defence, amid growing concerns over the safety of Kashmiris outside their home state.

Balakot Airstrike

On February 26, twelve Mirage 2000 jets belonging to the Indian Air Force breached the Line of Control and conducted bombing raids in Balakot, Pakistan. India asserted that the target was a Jaish-e-Mohammed training camp, claiming to have eliminated a significant number of terrorists, estimated between 300 and 350. Pakistan countered, stating that it promptly scrambled jets to intercept the Indian Air Force aircraft, leading to the dropping of payloads by the Indian jets before their hasty retreat over the Line of Control.

India-Pakistan Standoff

Following the Balakot airstrike, tensions between India and Pakistan escalated, culminating in a dogfight between Indian and Pakistani jets. During the confrontation, an Indian MiG-21 aircraft was shot down over Pakistani territory, resulting in the capture of its pilot by Pakistani forces. Pakistan later released the pilot on March 1, easing the immediate tensions between the two nations.

Pakistan Arrests Suspects

On March 5, Pakistan made a significant move by arresting 44 individuals affiliated with various groups, including Jaish-e-Muhammad (JeM). Some of the arrested individuals were specifically named by India in a dossier provided to Pakistan following the Pulwama attack. Pakistan announced that these suspects would be detained for a minimum of 14 days, with the possibility of prosecution if additional evidence was furnished by India.

Among those arrested were relatives of JeM leader Masood Azhar, including his son Hamad Azhar and his brother Abdul Rauf. This action marked a notable step by Pakistan in response to international pressure, particularly from India, to take concrete measures against terrorism.

Arrests and Operations in India

As of August 2021, Indian security forces had taken decisive action in pursuit of justice for the Pulwama attack. Seven of the accused individuals, including Saifullah, were killed during operations conducted by Indian security forces. Additionally, seven suspects were apprehended and taken into custody as part of ongoing efforts to hold accountable those responsible for the attack. These actions underscored India’s commitment to combating terrorism and ensuring the safety and security of its citizens.

Also ReadNarendra Modi Biography 2022, Age, Family, Wife, Caste, Net Worth, Political Journey, Wikipedia, and more

Reaction by India and Pakistan

In the aftermath of the attack, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi condemned the atrocity and extended his support to the victims and their families. Union Home Minister Rajnath Singh pledged a robust response to the terrorist act. India squarely blamed Pakistan for the attack, with BBC News highlighting Jaish-e-Mohammed’s involvement, which has a history of targeting both Indian and Pakistani military installations.

Security analysts widely attribute Jaish-e-Mohammed’s existence to Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence. Despite Pakistan banning the group in 2002, it continues to operate under different aliases with ISI’s backing. However, The New York Times questioned the direct link to Pakistan, noting that the attacker hailed from Indian-administered Kashmir, and the explosives might have been locally sourced.

Indian Finance Minister Arun Jaitley emphasized India’s determination to diplomatically isolate Pakistan in response to the attack.

Pakistan’s Response

Pakistan vehemently denied any involvement in the attack and refuted allegations linking it to the incident. Pakistani Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi condemned the bombing, emphasizing Pakistan’s stance against terrorism.

Fawad Chaudhry, Pakistan’s Federal Information Minister, stated that Pakistan was taking decisive action against Jaish-e-Muhammad and expressed willingness to collaborate with India in combating terrorist groups.

However, The Nation, a Pakistani newspaper, controversially referred to the assailant as a “freedom fighter,” portraying the attack as targeting members of an “occupying force.”

In a retaliatory move, both Pakistan and India recalled their ambassadors for “consultations,” escalating tensions between the two nations.

Pakistani Response and Indian Criticism

On February 19, 2019, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan stated that harboring terrorists was not in Pakistan’s interest and demanded evidence of Pakistani involvement in the attack. He cautioned India against military retaliation, warning of reciprocal action.

In response, the Indian Ministry of External Affairs criticized Khan for failing to condemn the attack or offer condolences to the victims. It argued that the statements made by Adil Ahmad Dar and Jaish-e-Mohammed provided ample evidence. The Ministry also expressed skepticism about Pakistan’s promise of an investigation, citing the lack of progress in previous attacks such as those in Mumbai and Pathankot.

Reacting to Indian criticism, the newspaper Dawn highlighted that Pakistani Foreign Minister Qureshi had expressed sympathy with the victims shortly after the attack.

Impact on Entertainment and Sports

In the aftermath of the attack on Indian territory, producers of Indian Hindi films, including “Notebook,” “Kabir Singh,” and “Satellite Shankar,” decided to withhold the release of their films in Pakistan.

Furthermore, former Indian cricket players and the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) advocated for the boycott of the 2019 World Cup group match fixture between India and Pakistan. They raised concerns about banning the Pakistan cricket team from participating in the tournament. However, the International Cricket Council (ICC) dismissed BCCI’s proposal during a press conference in Dubai, affirming that the scheduled match would proceed as planned despite the ongoing tensions between the two nations.

On March 8, 2019, during the third One Day International (ODI) against Australia in Ranchi, the India national cricket team paid tribute to the CRPF personnel killed in the attack by wearing camouflage military caps. Additionally, the players donated their match fees to the National Defence Fund. The Pakistan Cricket Board lodged a protest with the ICC regarding this gesture, but the ICC clarified that the BCCI had obtained permission to wear the caps.

Also Read-French Revolution-1789 AD- What were the Main Reasons for the Revolution?

International Community Condemnation

The United States swiftly condemned the attack, pledging support to India in counterterrorism efforts while urging Pakistan to cooperate with the investigation and hold those responsible accountable. Pakistan expressed readiness to collaborate in the investigation.

Several nations, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, France, Hungary, Israel, Maldives, Nepal, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom, along with the United Nations Secretary-General, denounced the attack. China and Turkey defended Pakistan’s antiterrorism actions.

China temporarily blocked a UN Security Council resolution to designate Jaish-e-Mohammed leader Masood Azhar as a global terrorist, despite unanimous support from other permanent council members.

Iran’s Deputy Foreign Minister affirmed cooperation with India to prevent future attacks during discussions with India’s External Affairs Minister.

Legacy: Tribute in Cricket

The Indian cricket team honored the memory of the 40 soldiers slain in the Pulwama attack by donning camouflage caps instead of their traditional sky blue team India caps during the third One Day International match against Australia in Ranchi.

However, Pakistan objected to this gesture, with Pakistani Information Minister Fawad Chaudhry and Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi urging the International Cricket Council (ICC) to ban the Indian team, alleging a mix of cricket with politics. Following a complaint from the Pakistani Cricket Board, the ICC clarified that the Indian team had sought and received permission to wear the camouflage caps as part of a fundraising initiative and to pay homage to the fallen soldiers.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *