In 2023, it has been over 100 years since the discovery of Mohenjodaro and Harappa, but many questions remain unresolved.
Mystery of Indus Valley Civilization
The biggest mystery about the Indus Valley Civilization is that its script has not been successfully deciphered to date. But experts agree that even when the Egyptian pyramids did not exist, the Indus Valley Civilization was not only at its peak but had no interference from religion and was a free-thinking society.
Spread over at least one million square kilometers of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and India, the cities of this civilization were built two and a half thousand years ago with such a well-planned plan that it is impossible to imagine it even in today’s cities.
Thousands of years ago, when this civilization was at its peak, it was larger than the combined size of both the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations of that time. Its vast cities were situated on the banks of rivers that still flow through Pakistan and India.
The famous British archaeologist Charles Mason discovered it in the late 1820s when he visited Harappa and examined the bricks and pottery found on the earthen mound. After 30 years in 1856, when the railway line was laid from here, these stones were used for the railway track.
In the 1920s, archaeologists carried out regular excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro and discovered the ancient Indus Valley Civilization. According to experts from the Indian Institute of Kharagpur and the Archaeological Survey of India, they have recently found evidence according to this civilization is 8,000 years old, while earlier it was believed to be 5,500 years old. In an article published in the journal Nature on 25 May 2016, it was considered older than both the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations.
Mohenjodaro, the largest city of this civilization, has found traces of a large swimming pool (huge bath) made of solid bricks, around which there are changing rooms, which shows how civilized these people lived. Was neat
The inscriptions, paintings, and coins found at Mohenjodaro contain images and symbols that have not been successfully deciphered to date. This ancient script remains a mystery to experts even today.
When excavations were carried out at Harappa, Mohenjodaro, and Rakhigarhi, experts found huge granaries made of brick and wood. All these godowns were built on the banks of the river so that goods could be transported easily. While Harappa had warehouses as well as grain grinding mills. That is, these goods were sent to other areas through the river and sea routes.
The Lothal region of Gujarat, India is also one of the oldest cities in the Indus Valley. A 37-meter-long dock has been discovered here which is believed to be the oldest to date. From here trade took place between the Harappans and the Indian city of Gujarat through the Sabarmati River. Because in those days the desert was a part of the Arabian Sea.
Kali Bangan, meaning ‘black bangles’, was situated on the banks of the Ghaghra River in what is now Rajasthan, India. Experts believe that for the first time in the world, the plow was used for farming in this city. While many fire pits have also been found here, from which it is also believed that these people used to worship fire.
Experts have also found evidence here that suggests that the people of the Indus civilization were interested in toys and games. The squares are built on stones which may be the oldest form of chess. While a stone with six sides similar to the grains of Lado has also been found here, which might have been used in a similar game.
Houses and baths built in a line at Mohenjodaro, straight roads, dustbins in the streets and covered drains for water drainage, and at least seven hundred water wells are enough to understand that the people of the Indus Valley used to settle the city with regular planning. Were. ,
Objects found in the houses include peacocks, garlands, ornaments, and utensils. The city had both rich and poor classes, but it is surprising that there were no places of worship and no traces of a ruler’s palace. Very few such weapons have been found here which proves that the people here were peaceful and believed in co-existence.
The abundance of objects found in the cities of the Indus Civilization includes jewelry, which reflects the people’s love for fashion, while there were also cotton dyeing factories.
Sugar, vermilion, and vermilion were also used in cosmetics. Idols made of mica and special mortars have also been found here. Among these is a bronze statue of a girl who appears to be dancing. There is also a bearded king and a bullock cart made of clay.
Seals from Harappa and its surrounding cities show that there was a regular system of trade based on barter rather than money and that trade relations were established with distant regions such as Mesopotamia. The beads, utensils, and weapons found at Ur in Mesopotamia are similar to those found at Harappa.
Thousands of inscribed seals with images of Mahadev Pashupati have been found in Harappa, the oldest evidence of Shiva and Vedic mythology. Another surprising thing is that the Harappans were worshipers of gods and goddesses instead of gods. i.e. woman was worshiped.
A large number of idols have been found here.
57 such cemeteries have also been found in Harappa where there are square graves in which their belongings are also buried. A total of 44 human skeletons have also been found at Mohenjodaro, including a mother, father, and children holding hands. Experts speculate differently as to how these people died.
How did life come to an abrupt end in Harappa and Mohenjodaro? In this regard, experts have not yet been able to give evidence of any war, fire, or flood, but it seems that the economy of these cities was destroyed by the change of the direction of the Indus, Ghaghra, and Hakra rivers and gradually the life here became extinct. Went.