Introduction to Mahatma Buddha
Like Jainism, Buddhism also emerged in opposition to Hinduism. Its original originator was Gautam Buddha. His original name was Siddhartha. He was born in 563 BC in a garden called Lumbini near Kapilvastu. It is located in the Terai of Nepal. Siddhartha’s father’s name was Shuddhodhana and mother’s name was Mayadevi. He was the Kshatriya king of Kapilvastu. He belonged to Gautam gotra, hence Siddhartha is also called Gautam. Since childhood, Siddhartha was of contemplative nature. It is said that once in his childhood he was stunned to see the sick and the dead for the first time and started thinking of ways to get rid of sorrow. Sitting in a secluded place, he began to contemplate for hours on life, death and sorrow. Seeing the attitude of Siddhartha, his father was worried.
Siddhartha got married with a very beautiful girl Yashodhara. Yashodhara was the princess of Koliyagram in Ramgram. Siddhartha led a householder’s life for about 12 years. In the meantime, a son named Rahul was born to them. Siddhartha after receiving the news of son’s birth
Wasn’t happy. His heart grieved even more. The scenes of life-death and sickness- kept on hurting his heart. Eventually one night Siddhartha left his son Yashodhara and son Rahul and set out to search for the path of liberation. This event is called ‘Mahabhi-Nishkarman’. After renunciation, Siddhartha went to Pataliputra, Rajagriha and Gaya. There he did severe penance in a forest called Uruvela. Here he got the knowledge of adopting the middle path.
Eightfold Paths of Buddhism
The power to recognize truth and falsehood. According to Mahatma Buddha, whoever wants to go free from sorrows. He should have the power to distinguish between true and false.
Willingness and violence-free resolve. According to Mahatma Buddha, those who want to get rid of sorrows. They should take such resolutions which are free from violence and their will is strong.
Truth and soft speech. Mahatma Buddha has also described right speech to get rid of sorrows. According to Buddha, by speaking truthfully and sweetly, a person feels happiness and sorrow does not wander around him.
Good deeds, charity, kindness, virtue, non-violence, etc. By keeping a sense of kindness, compassion and charity and good deeds, a person stays away from sorrows.
Virtuous and proper way of living. Gautam Buddha has also told right path of life to right life.
Prudent effort. Mahatma Buddha also asked to do right exercise to remove sorrows. He said that if judicious efforts are made to do any work, then success is definitely earned and human beings stay away from sorrows.
Teaches how to be judiciously aware of one’s actions.
Mahatma Buddha has also taught to be judiciously aware of one’s actions to remove the miseries of human life.
Concentration of mind Mahatma Buddha has also told the importance of concentration in human life.
Apart from this, Gautam Buddha emphasized the following (Ten Shilas ) to facilitate the attainment of Nirvana.
- Asteya (not to steal),
- Aparigraha (not possessing any kind of property),
- Do not drink honey
- Not eating untimely food,
- Not sleeping on a comfortable bed,
- Not hoarding money,
- Stay away from women
- Stay away from dance songs etc.
Along with this, Lord Buddha also preached to have mercy on the living beings and has strongly condemned the ostentation like havan, animal sacrifice.
Important things of Buddhism
Buddhism is open to all castes and creeds. Everyone is welcome in it. Whether it is a Brahmin or a Chandal, a sinner or a virtuous soul, a householder or a brahmachari, their door is open to everyone. There is no discrimination of caste, creed, high and low in their religion.
Mahatma Gautam Buddha not only made the lives of many people successful with his teachings but also developed the thinking of the people. Along with this, he also played an important role in creating a sense of compassion and kindness among the people.
The word Buddhist means to awaken the conscience of man. At the same time, when people started getting to know about Buddhism, then people were attracted towards this religion. Now not only the people of India but many crores of people of the world follow Buddhism. In this way the followers of Gautam Buddha spread all over the world.
When is the birth anniversary of Gautam Buddha or Buddha Purnima celebrated? (Gautam Buddha Jayanti)
The birth anniversary of Gautam Buddha or the full moon of Vaishakh is celebrated in the second month of Hindi month. Therefore it is also called Vesak or Hanmatsuri. Especially this festival is prevalent in Buddhism. People who believe in Buddhism celebrate Buddhi Purnima with great pomp, as it is also one of their major festivals.
Gautam Buddha was born on the day of Buddha Purnima, on this day he attained enlightenment and on this day he also attained Mahanirvana. Whereas this has not happened with any other great man. Therefore, this day was celebrated as the birth anniversary of Gautam Buddha or Buddha Purnima.
Buddha By spreading his message in the world, humanity has suffered sorrow, grief, death. Decided to be free from fear etc. After attaining knowledge, he propagated education by roaming in Magadha, Sarnath etc. regions for 45 years. Soon his Buddhism became popular.
Done He died in Kushinagar (Gorakhpur) in 483 BC at the age of 80. This event is called ‘Mahaparinirvana’.
It is interesting that (Buddhism also had its rise and fall in India. Buddha’s teachings were very simple. His philosophy of life was based on simple rules. All these rules were rational and logical. To lead a pure life. honesty for
And the emphasis was on virtue. Buddha’s personality was impressive. His heart was filled with compassion and compassion for all the suffering beings in the world. Buddhist associations made a big contribution in the promotion of Buddhism. The monks and nuns of the Sangh made a great contribution.
Big emperors, kings, Seth-Sahukars and influential people accepted Buddhism and helped in its propagation. King Bimbisara of Magadha, King Prasenjit of Kosala, King Pradyut of Avanti patronized Buddhism. Buddha gave his sermon in the local language Pali. The monks of the Buddhist Sangha also preached in this language. Emperor Ashoka took many steps for the propagation of Buddhism. Due to these reasons Buddhism flourished in India.
Also, there were some reasons for the decline of Buddhism in India.
Later, due to the destruction of the chastity of the monks and nuns in the Buddhist monasteries, their preaching work got slack.
In the beginning Buddhism was very simple. But, gradually, many complex rituals came in this too. Worship of Buddhist idols started and special emphasis was given on rituals.
Buddhist monks started fighting among themselves over religious principles and started opposing each other. The number of Buddhist literature also increased and it became a complicated problem for the followers of Buddhism which ideals to follow.
Later on, Buddhism did not get the patronage of kings and emperors. The Sungas, Kanvas, Andhra-Satvahanas, Gupta emperors etc. did not take any steps for the promotion of Buddhism.
The entry of women into the Buddhist sangha gave birth to many evils.
The pure environment of Buddhist monasteries got polluted.
When political unity started fading away in North India, the Muslims came under attack, the invaders destroyed the Buddhist Viharas.
Nevertheless, it can be said that Buddhism has greatly influenced Indian civilization, culture, thinking, social formation etc. Idols of Bodhisattvas started being made and they were worshipped. Idols of Hindu gods and goddesses also started being made in their imitation. Temples were built for the Yagya. Thus, idol worship became an integral part of Hinduism. Gautam Buddha opened the way for the upliftment of the local language by giving his sermons in the then Lokbhashapali. By emphasizing on non-violence, Buddhism changed the national nature of India.
Has contributed a lot in making peace loving. Buddha emphasized on independent thinking and reasoning in the field of religion. This encouraged independent thinking in the field of religion and philosophy. Buddhism was spread in many South-East Asian countries like China, Burma, Sinhala etc. Many students and curious scholars from abroad also used to come to India. Bodh religion does not believe in God and soul.
Buddhism sees a causal relationship behind every event in the world, which is called dependent origination.
Buddhist philosophy considers this world to be fleeting rather than eternal. Accordingly, things are mutable. Buddhism believes in karma, according to which every person has to bear the fruits of his karma. Buddhism believes in reincarnation Buddhism treats every caste with equal attitude.
Mahatma Buddha of rituals, yagyas and animal sacrifices. Strongly opposed.
Mahatma Buddha did not believe in the Vedas. He considered non-violence as his supreme religion. Buddha was a supporter of the middle path.
There were three main parts of Buddhism – Buddha, Sangha and Dharma.
Buddhism split into two parts at the time of Kanishka Hinayana and Mahayana happened. Later a third branch of Buddhism, Vajrayana also developed. The Buddhist texts are mainly found in Pali, but the texts of the Mahayana school are in Sanskrit. The Jataka tales present the details of the Buddha’s previous births. In these, description of religious, social and economic life is found.
The Dipavansh and Mahavansh were written in Pali in Sri Lanka. In these, the social, religious and economic life of the then India is described.
The most important texts of Buddhism are the Pitakas. These can be divided into three parts-
(i) Sutta Pitaka – Words of Buddha
(ii) Vinay Pitaka—Rules of the Union
(iil)Abhidhamma Pitaka – Philosophical Interpretation of Dharma
Buddha died at the age of 80 in 483 BC in Kushinagar (Uttar Pradesh). After the death of Buddha, sangeetas were organized to resolve disputes over questions related to religion.
Some monks did not participate in the Second Buddhist Council and formed a new sect, Mahasandhika. The rest of the Buddhist monks were called Theravadis. After attaining enlightenment from Bodh Gaya, Buddha came to Sarnath, where he gave his sermons to 5 Brahmin sannyasins, which is known in Buddhism as Dharmachakra Pravarnan Buddha gave his sermons in Magadha, Kosala, Veshali, Kaushambi and many other states.