Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period – Urdu, Persian and Arabic literature in the Mughal era

The Mughals excelled in various areas, including architecture, literature, science, and administrative efficiency, making significant contributions to these fields. The Mughal era witnessed a remarkable flourishing of literature. Literary sources of knowing the history of the Mughal period The evolution of Indian literature gave rise to the emergence of Urdu as an independent language by … Read more

Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun, also known as Nasiruddin Muhammad Humayun, was a renowned Mughal ruler. He was born on March 6, 1508 AD in Kabul to ‘Maham Begum,’ the wife of Babur. Among Babur’s four sons, Humayun was the eldest, followed by Kamran, Askari, and Hindal. Babur designated Humayun as his successor. At the tender age of 12, in 1520 AD, Humayun was appointed as the governor of Badakhshan even before his coronation in India. During his tenure as the governor of Badakhshan, Humayun actively participated in all of Babur’s military campaigns in India.

Humayun Life and Struggles: Early Life, Conquest and Exile and Recovery of Power

Humayun-Early Life & Education

Humayun, born on March 6, 1508, in Kabul, Afghanistan, was the eldest son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, and his wife Maham Begum. He belonged to the Timurid dynasty, which had a rich heritage in Central Asia.

During his early years, Humayun received a comprehensive education befitting a future ruler. He studied various subjects, including literature, history, art, mathematics, and astronomy. His education also encompassed military training, equipping him with the skills necessary to lead armies and engage in warfare.

Humayun’s childhood was shaped by the turbulent political environment in which his father operated. Babur faced numerous challenges in establishing and maintaining his rule over the newly founded Mughal Empire. As a result, Humayun witnessed firsthand the intricacies of politics and military strategies from an early age.

In 1526, at the age of 18, Humayun accompanied his father in the battle of Panipat, where Babur emerged victorious and established the Mughal Empire in India. This pivotal moment further exposed Humayun to the art of governance and the complexities of ruling a vast empire.

After Babur’s death in 1530, Humayun ascended to the throne at the age of 22, becoming the second Mughal emperor. However, his early years as ruler were marked by challenges and opposition. He faced rebellions from various regional powers and rivals who sought to undermine his authority and seize power for themselves.

Despite these obstacles, Humayun displayed diplomatic acumen and military prowess in his efforts to consolidate his rule. He successfully defended his empire against internal and external threats, securing his position as the ruler of a vast and diverse empire.

Humayun’s early reign also saw his marriage to Hamida Banu Begum, who would later become the mother of his renowned son and successor, Akbar the Great.

However, Humayun’s rule was interrupted in 1540 when Sher Shah Suri, a prominent Afghan noble, defeated him in the Battle of Kanauj. As a result, Humayun was forced into exile, leading to a fifteen-year period of struggle and wanderings.

During his exile, Humayun faced numerous hardships and setbacks but also gained valuable experiences and allies. He sought refuge in Persia, where he formed alliances with the Safavid dynasty and received military assistance.

Humayun’s early life was characterized by a combination of princely education, exposure to the intricacies of power, and the challenges of ruling an empire. These experiences would shape his character and leadership style as he embarked on a remarkable journey to reclaim his throne and restore the Mughal Empire.

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Aurangzeb Alamgir: Did the Mughal emperor who ruled India for 50 years really hate Hindus?

Aurangzeb is one of the most unpopular rulers in Indian history. He was a staunch Islamic ruler and he destroyed many Hindu temples and built mosques. Apart from this, he behaved very inhumanly with the Hindus. Today in this article we will test the veracity of these allegations Aurangzeb Alamgir: Did the Mughal emperor who ruled India for 50 years really hate Hindus? Must read the article till the end.

Aurangzeb Alamgir: Did the Mughal emperor who ruled India for 50 years really hate Hindus?

Aurangzeb Alamgir-early life

Aurangzeb, the most controversial ruler of the Mughal dynasty and Indian history, was born on 3 November 1618 in Dahod, Gujarat. He was the sixth child and third son of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan. Shah Jahan was the governor of Gujarat at the time of his birth.

NameAurangzeb Alamgir
Full NameAbul Muzaffar Muhammad Mohiuddin Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir Badshah Ghazi
Birth3 November 1618
Birth placeDahod Gujarat India
Father's nameShah jahan
Mother's nameMumtaz
LinageMughal dynasty
ReligionSunni islam
Reign31 July 1658 – 3 March 1707
Wives namesDilras Bano Begum, Begum Nawabbai, Aurangabadi Mahal Begum, Udaipuri Mahal.
Names of sonsMohammad Sultan, Bahadur Shah, Mohammad Azam Shah, Mohammad Kambakhsultan Mohammad Akbar
Daughters namesZeb-un-Nisa, Zeenat-un-Nisa, Badr-un-Nisa, Zubdat-un-Nisa, Mehr-un-Nisa
Coronation13 June 1659 in Shalimar Bagh
DeathMarch 3, 1707
Age at death(age 88)
MausoleumAurangzeb's Tomb, Khuldabad Aurangabad Maharashtra, India
ArticleMedieval India

In June 1626, as a result of Shah Jahan’s failed rebellion, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shikoh were imprisoned by Nur Jahan at their grandfather Jahangir’s court in Lahore.

When Shah Jahan was proclaimed Mughal emperor on 26 February 1628, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort. It was here that Aurangzeb received formal education in Arabic and Persian.

It was Aurangzeb during whose reign the Mughal Empire reached its zenith. He was probably the richest and most powerful man of his time. During his lifetime, through conquests in some of the kingdoms of South India, the Mughal Empire covered twelve and a half million square miles and ruled over 150 million people, a quarter of the world’s population.

Aurangzeb was a devout Muslim and imposed a Sharia-based Fatwa-i-Alamgiri on the entire empire and imposed a high tax called Jizya on non-Muslims for a long time. He was not the first Muslim ruler to impose Sharia on non-Muslim subjects. He killed Guru Tegh Bahadur of the Sikhs for not accepting Islam and destroyed many temples and built mosques in place of temples.

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