Gandhi was born in Porbandar (2 October 1869), Gujarat, India, and after studying law in London, he returned to India to practice law. However, he became increasingly involved in political activism, particularly in the Indian National Congress, and led various nonviolent campaigns and protests against British rule.
Gandhi is also known for his philosophy of Satyagraha, which means “truth force” or “soul force.” He believed that nonviolent resistance could be a powerful tool for social and political change and inspired similar movements around the world.
Mahatma Gandhi Biograph-Family of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi was born into a Hindu family in Porbandar, Gujarat, India in 1869. His father, Karamchand Gandhi, was a prominent local politician and served as the Diwan or chief minister of Porbandar. Gandhi’s mother, Putlibai Gandhi, was a deeply religious woman who instilled in her son a lifelong commitment to truth and morality.
Gandhi was married to Kasturba Gandhi, also known as Ba, in 1883 when he was just 13 years old. The two had an arranged marriage, which was common in India at the time. Kasturba played a significant role in Gandhi’s life and activism, supporting him in his political campaigns and social work. They had four sons together: Harilal, Manilal, Ramdas, and Devdas.
Throughout his life, Gandhi remained closely connected to his family, even as he traveled extensively and devoted himself to his work as a social and political activist. His relationship with Kasturba was especially close, and the two remained together until her death in 1944. Gandhi’s family also played a role in his activism, with several of his sons and grandchildren becoming involved in the Indian independence movement and carrying on his legacy of nonviolent resistance and social justice.
Gandhi was assassinated in 1948 by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist who disagreed with Gandhi’s views on partition and his advocacy for Hindu-Muslim unity. Nevertheless, Gandhi’s legacy continues to inspire people around the world to strive for peace, justice, and equality through nonviolent means.
Education of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi was a highly educated person who dedicated his life to the struggle for India’s independence from British colonial rule. He studied law in London, England, and was admitted to the Inner Temple, one of the four prestigious Inns of Court in London.
Gandhi’s formal education began in Porbandar, Gujarat, India, where he was born on October 2, 1869. He later attended high school in Rajkot, also in Gujarat. After completing his secondary education, he went to London to study law. Gandhi was a diligent student and excelled in his studies.
In addition to his formal education, Gandhi was greatly influenced by his mother, who instilled in him a deep love of religion and spirituality. He was also influenced by the teachings of the Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture, and other religious texts.
Throughout his life, Gandhi continued to educate himself, reading widely and studying various religious and philosophical traditions. He also developed a deep understanding of human nature and social dynamics through his experiences working as a lawyer in South Africa and leading the Indian independence movement.
When did Mahatma Gandhi go to south africa
Mahatma Gandhi went to South Africa in 1893. At the time, he was a young lawyer who had recently passed the bar exam in London and had been invited to South Africa to represent an Indian businessman. However, Gandhi’s experiences in South Africa would have a profound impact on his life and work.
While in South Africa, Gandhi witnessed and experienced firsthand the discrimination and injustices faced by the Indian community, who were treated as second-class citizens by the British colonial authorities. He became involved in the struggle for Indian rights and eventually developed his philosophy of Satyagraha (truth force) and nonviolent resistance, which he would later apply to the Indian independence movement.
Gandhi spent over 20 years in South Africa, during which time he became a prominent leader of the Indian community and a leading advocate for civil rights and social justice. His experiences in South Africa shaped his worldview and laid the foundation for his later work as a social and political activist in India.
When did Mahatma Gandhi return from South Africa?
Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915. After spending more than two decades in South Africa, during which he became a prominent leader and advocate for Indian rights, Gandhi felt that his work there was largely done. He returned to India with a wealth of experience and a deep commitment to social justice and political activism.
Upon his return to India, Gandhi emerged as a major political figure and soon became the leader of the Indian National Congress, a political party that was fighting for India’s independence from British colonial rule. Gandhi’s leadership and his philosophy of nonviolent resistance, which he had developed during his time in South Africa, became central to the Indian independence movement.
Gandhi continued to work tirelessly for Indian independence, leading numerous nonviolent protests and civil disobedience campaigns against British rule. His efforts ultimately paid off, and India gained independence from Britain in 1947. Gandhi’s legacy as a social and political leader and his commitment to nonviolent resistance continue to inspire people around the world to this day.
Champaran Rebellion and Mahatma Gandhi
The Champaran Rebellion was a peasant uprising that occurred in Champaran, Bihar, India, in 1917. The rebellion was sparked by the exploitation of indigo farmers by British landlords who forced them to grow indigo on a portion of their land and sell it to them at a fixed price. The farmers were left with little land to grow crops for their own sustenance, and they were forced to buy food at exorbitant prices.
Mahatma Gandhi, who had recently returned to India from South Africa, was invited to Champaran by local leaders to investigate the situation and provide guidance. Gandhi arrived in Champaran in 1917 and launched a nonviolent campaign to support the farmers. He called for a boycott of British goods and organized peaceful protests and strikes.
Gandhi’s efforts brought national attention to the issue, and the British government was forced to take notice. In response, they appointed a commission to investigate the situation in Champaran. The commission’s report confirmed the exploitation of the farmers and recommended that the British landlords be held accountable for their actions.
The Champaran Rebellion was a significant turning point in Gandhi’s political career and his development of the philosophy of nonviolent resistance. The success of his nonviolent campaign in Champaran demonstrated the power of peaceful resistance in bringing about change, and it became a model for his future struggles against British rule in India.
Kheda Movement and Mahatma Gandhi
The Kheda Movement was a peasant uprising that occurred in the Kheda district of Gujarat, India, in 1918. The movement was sparked by the British government’s decision to raise the land tax in the district, despite the fact that the area had been hit by crop failure and drought.
Mahatma Gandhi, who was a leader of the Indian National Congress at the time, was invited to Kheda to support the farmers and lead the movement. Gandhi called for a nonviolent campaign of civil disobedience, including a refusal to pay the increased taxes and a boycott of British goods.
The British government responded to the movement with repression, arresting Gandhi and other leaders and using force to disperse the protesters. However, Gandhi’s nonviolent tactics and his emphasis on self-sacrifice and non-cooperation attracted widespread attention and support, both within India and internationally.
The Kheda Movement ultimately proved successful, as the British government was forced to negotiate with the farmers and reduce the tax rate. The movement also further solidified Gandhi’s reputation as a leader of India’s struggle for independence and as a pioneer of nonviolent resistance.
The Kheda Movement was a significant milestone in Gandhi’s career and in the Indian independence movement as a whole. It demonstrated the power of nonviolent resistance in bringing about change and galvanized support for India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule.
Ahmedabad Mill Movement and Mahatma Gandhi
The Ahmedabad Mill Strike, also known as the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association (TLA) Strike, was a labor strike that occurred in Ahmedabad, India in 1918. The strike was led by the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association, which was founded by Mahatma Gandhi and other labor leaders.
The textile workers were demanding better wages, improved working conditions, and an end to the oppressive management practices of the mill owners. Gandhi, who was a strong advocate for workers’ rights, supported the strike and urged the workers to use nonviolent resistance to achieve their demands.
Under Gandhi’s leadership, the strikers refused to return to work until their demands were met, and they organized peaceful protests and rallies to raise awareness about their cause. The mill owners responded with violence and repression, including the arrest of Gandhi and other leaders.
Despite the obstacles, the Ahmedabad Mill Strike ultimately proved successful. The mill owners were forced to concede to the workers’ demands, and the strike became a model for labor movements throughout India.
The Ahmedabad Mill Movement was significant for both Gandhi and the Indian independence movement, as it demonstrated the power of nonviolent resistance in achieving social and economic justice. It also helped to raise awareness about workers’ rights and contributed to the growth of the labor movement in India.
When did Mahatma Gandhi join Congress?
Mahatma Gandhi officially joined the Indian National Congress party in 1915, soon after his return from South Africa where he had spent over 20 years fighting for the rights of Indian immigrants. Upon his return to India, Gandhi was quickly recognized as a leader and was asked to participate in the Indian nationalist movement.
Gandhi initially worked with Congress on several issues, such as the fight for Swaraj or self-rule, which led to his formal inclusion in the party in 1915. His philosophy of nonviolent resistance, which he had developed during his time in South Africa, became central to the Congress party’s ideology and a guiding principle in their struggle for Indian independence from British colonial rule.
Gandhi’s leadership and activism within Congress were crucial in shaping the Indian independence movement, and he quickly became a prominent figure within the party. Throughout his life, he worked tirelessly to further the cause of Indian independence, leading numerous nonviolent protests and civil disobedience campaigns against British rule, and his contributions to the Indian freedom struggle remain an inspiration to people around the world.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was a significant phase in the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi from 1920 to 1922. The movement aimed to challenge British colonial authority in India by using nonviolent civil disobedience and non-cooperation with British institutions.
The Non-Cooperation Movement was launched after the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, in which British troops killed hundreds of unarmed civilians in Amritsar, Punjab. Gandhi, who had previously advocated for cooperation with British authorities, realized that the massacre demonstrated the need for more active resistance against British rule.
The movement involved boycotting British institutions such as schools, courts, and the civil service, as well as goods manufactured in Britain. Indians were encouraged to wear only khadi (homespun cloth) and to organize peaceful protests and strikes.
The Non-Cooperation Movement had a significant impact on India’s political landscape. It united people across different religions, castes, and regions in the fight against British colonialism. However, the movement was suspended in 1922 after a violent clash between protesters and police in Chauri Chaura, Uttar Pradesh. Gandhi called off the movement, arguing that the protesters had violated the principles of nonviolence, and he was arrested by British authorities.
Despite its suspension, the Non-Cooperation Movement inspired other movements in India, and Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence and civil disobedience remained a powerful tool for social and political change.
The Civil Disobedience Movement was a major phase in the Indian independence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi from 1930 to 1934. The movement aimed to challenge British colonial authority in India by using nonviolent civil disobedience, non-cooperation, and peaceful protests.
The Civil Disobedience Movement was launched after the failure of the Round Table Conference in London, which failed to grant India dominion status or self-rule. Gandhi declared the “Salt Satyagraha” or “Salt March” as part of the movement, which involved a 240-mile journey by foot to the coastal town of Dandi to make salt from seawater in protest against the British salt tax. This led to thousands of Indians joining in the act of making salt, and the movement soon spread across the country.
The movement also involved boycotting British goods, non-payment of taxes, and picketing liquor shops. As a result of the movement, many Indians were imprisoned and faced violent repression from the British colonial authorities.
Despite the movement being suspended in 1934, it played a significant role in the Indian independence movement, and Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence and civil disobedience inspired similar movements around the world. It also helped to raise awareness of the injustices of British colonial rule in India and played a crucial role in India’s eventual independence in 1947.
Quit India movement
The Quit India Movement was a major civil disobedience movement launched by the Indian National Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi on August 8, 1942, during World War II. The movement aimed to demand an end to British colonial rule in India and to achieve Indian independence.
The Quit India Movement was a significant turning point in India’s struggle for independence, as it represented a more radical approach to resistance against British colonial rule. The movement demanded that the British leave India immediately, and it called for nonviolent civil disobedience and non-cooperation with the British government.
The movement gained momentum across India, with millions of Indians participating in strikes, protests, and acts of civil disobedience. The British colonial government responded with a brutal crackdown, arresting thousands of activists, and using violence to suppress the movement.
Despite the brutal repression, the Quit India Movement inspired a new generation of leaders and activists, and it had a significant impact on India’s struggle for independence. It brought international attention to India’s fight for freedom, and it helped to create a sense of national unity and a strong desire for independence among Indians.
The Quit India Movement also marked a significant shift in Mahatma Gandhi’s political strategy, as he began to adopt more radical tactics and demand immediate independence for India. Ultimately, the movement played a significant role in India’s independence from British colonial rule in 1947.
Why was Mahatma ji killed?
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist who disagreed with Gandhi’s views on partition and his advocacy for Hindu-Muslim unity.https://studyguru.org.in
Godse was a member of the Hindu nationalist organization, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), which had been critical of Gandhi’s policies and had been implicated in earlier attempts on his life. Godse believed that Gandhi’s policies of nonviolence and religious tolerance were weakening Hindu society, and he saw Gandhi as a traitor to Hinduism.
Godse was convinced that Gandhi’s efforts to achieve Hindu-Muslim unity were misguided and that partition was necessary to protect the interests of Hindus. He believed that Gandhi was responsible for the division of India, and he saw Gandhi’s nonviolent resistance as a form of cowardice.
On January 30, 1948, Godse shot Gandhi three times at close range while he was on his way to a prayer meeting in New Delhi. Gandhi died almost instantly, and his death was mourned by millions of people around the world.
Godse and his accomplice were arrested, and they were later tried and convicted of Gandhi’s murder. Godse was sentenced to death and was executed in 1949. The assassination of Mahatma Gandhi remains a tragic event in Indian history and a reminder of the dangers of religious extremism and intolerance.
Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of non-violence
Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of non-violence, also known as ahimsa, was a key tenet of his philosophy and approach to social and political activism. Ahimsa means “non-violence” or “non-injury” and is rooted in the idea that all living beings are interconnected and that violence or harm to one is harm to all.http://www.histortstudy.in
Gandhi believed that non-violence was not only a moral and ethical principle but also a powerful tool for social and political change. He practiced non-violence in both his personal life and his activism, using peaceful resistance and civil disobedience to challenge unjust laws and oppressive regimes.
Gandhi’s principle of non-violence was based on several key ideas, including the importance of truth, love, and compassion. He believed that nonviolent resistance could be effective in confronting and challenging systems of oppression and injustice, without resorting to violent means.
Through his activism, Gandhi demonstrated the power of non-violence, leading successful campaigns for social justice and political change in India and inspiring movements for civil rights and peace around the world. His philosophy of non-violence continues to be an influential and inspiring force today, inspiring people around the world to work for peace and justice through peaceful means.
Meaning of Satyagraha
Satyagraha is a Sanskrit word coined by Mahatma Gandhi, which is made up of two parts: “Satya” meaning “truth” and “Agraha” meaning “Firmness” or “Hold.” Together, “Satyagraha” means “holding firmly to truth” or “firmness in truth.”
Gandhi developed the concept of Satyagraha as a nonviolent method of resistance and civil disobedience to fight for justice and freedom. Satyagraha is based on the idea that one should stand up for what is right, regardless of the consequences, and resist injustice without resorting to violence or hatred.
Satyagraha involves using nonviolent resistance, civil disobedience, and other peaceful methods to confront oppression, discrimination, and injustice. Gandhi believed that by holding firmly to the truth and resisting injustice without violence, people could awaken the conscience of their oppressors and ultimately achieve lasting social and political change.
Satyagraha was central to Gandhi’s philosophy and approach to social and political activism. He used this concept to lead successful campaigns for Indian independence and to fight against discrimination and injustice in South Africa and India. Today, Satyagraha is recognized as a powerful force for social and political change, inspiring movements for civil rights, freedom, and justice around the world.
Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy is significant and far-reaching, both in India and around the world. Here are some of the key aspects of his legacy:
- Nonviolence: Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence, or ahimsa, has had a profound impact on social and political activism. His approach to peaceful resistance and civil disobedience has inspired movements for civil rights, human rights, and social justice around the world.
- Indian Independence: Gandhi’s leadership in the Indian independence movement played a crucial role in securing India’s freedom from British colonial rule in 1947.
- Religious Harmony: Gandhi was a champion of religious harmony and believed in the power of unity and compassion to overcome divisions between different faiths.
- Social Justice: Gandhi fought tirelessly for social justice and equality, advocating for the rights of oppressed groups such as the untouchables, women, and peasants.
- Sustainability: Gandhi was an early advocate for sustainability and environmentalism, promoting ideas such as self-sufficiency and responsible stewardship of natural resources.
- Education: Gandhi believed in the transformative power of education and advocated for universal access to education as a means of empowering individuals and communities.
- Global Influence: Gandhi’s ideas and philosophy have had a lasting impact on people and movements around the world, including figures such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela.
Overall, Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy continues to inspire people around the world to work for social justice, peace, and equality through nonviolence and compassion.
20 priceless thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi
- “Be the change you wish to see in the world.”
- “Strength does not come from physical capacity. It comes from an indomitable will.”
- “Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.”
- “The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.”
- “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”
- “Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes.”
- “The difference between what we do and what we are capable of doing would suffice to solve most of the world’s problems.”
- “An eye for an eye will only make the whole world blind.”
- “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.”
- “First they ignore you, then they ridicule you, then they fight you, and then you win.”
- “The greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated.”
- “The only tyrant I accept in this world is the still voice within.”
- “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.”
- “A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks, he becomes.”
- “The weak can never exert revenge. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.”
- “Strength does not come from winning. Your struggles develop your strengths. When you go through hardships and decide not to surrender, that is strength.”
- “There is more to life than simply increasing its speed.”
- “The earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.”
- “It is the quality of our work which will please God and not the quantity.”
- “The day the power of love overrules the love of power, the world will know peace.”
Frequently Asked Questions About Mahatma Gandhi
Q-What is Mahatma Gandhi famous for?
Mahatma Gandhi is famous for his leadership in the Indian independence movement and his philosophy of nonviolence, which has inspired social and political activism around the world.
Q-What does Mahatma mean?
Mahatma is a title of respect and honor in India that means “great soul.” It was given to Gandhi in recognition of his spiritual and moral leadership.
Q-What were Mahatma Gandhi’s beliefs?
Gandhi believed in the power of nonviolence, truth, love, and compassion to bring about social and political change. He also believed in religious harmony, social justice, and sustainability.
Q-What is the Salt March?
The Salt March was a peaceful protest led by Gandhi in 1930 against the British salt tax. It involved a 240-mile march to the Arabian Sea, where protesters made salt from seawater in defiance of the British monopoly on salt production.
Q-When did Mahatma Gandhi die?
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on January 30, 1948, in New Delhi, India.
Q-What is the significance of Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday?
Mahatma Gandhi’s birthday, October 2, is celebrated in India as a national holiday called Gandhi Jayanti. It is also observed as the International Day of Nonviolence by the United Nations.
Q-How did Mahatma Gandhi inspire Martin Luther King Jr.?
Martin Luther King Jr. was inspired by Gandhi’s philosophy of nonviolence and peaceful resistance, and he credited Gandhi as one of his major influences in the civil rights movement in the United States.
Q-How did Mahatma Gandhi impact India?
Mahatma Gandhi’s leadership in the Indian independence movement helped to secure India’s freedom from British colonial rule in 1947. His ideas and philosophy also had a profound impact on Indian society and continue to influence Indian politics and culture today.
Q-What was Mahatma Gandhi’s role in the Quit India Movement?
The Quit India Movement was a mass movement launched by Gandhi in 1942 against British colonial rule in India. Gandhi played a key role in organizing the movement and mobilizing public support for Indian independence.
Q-What is Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy?
Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy is significant and far-reaching, encompassing his philosophy of nonviolence, leadership in the Indian independence movement, and advocacy for social justice, religious harmony, sustainability, and education. His ideas and philosophy continue to inspire people around the world to work for social and political change through peaceful means.
In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader and thinker who left an indelible mark on India and the world. His philosophy of nonviolence and peaceful resistance inspired social and political movements for civil rights, human rights, and social justice around the world. His leadership in the Indian independence movement helped secure India’s freedom from British colonial rule, and his advocacy for social justice, religious harmony, sustainability, and education continues to influence people and movements today. Gandhi’s legacy is one of compassion, courage, and perseverance in the face of adversity, and his ideas and philosophy will continue to inspire generations to come.