Mahmud Ghaznavi (971 AD to 1030 AD)
Mahmud Ghaznavi was the ruler of Ghazni who ruled from 971 to 1030 AD. He was the son of Subaktagin. Attracted by the wealth of India, Ghaznavi attacked India several times. In fact, Ghaznavi attacked India 17 times. The main motive of his attack was to plunder the property of India.
Invasions of Mahmud Ghazni in 1000 AD: Mahmud Ghazni first invaded modern Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1000 AD. He defeated the Hindu ruler Jai Pal, who later committed suicide and was succeeded by his son Anandapala.
- In 1005 AD Ghazni attacked Bhatia.
- Ghazni attacked Multan in 1006 AD. Meanwhile, Anandpal attacked him.
- In 1007 AD, Mahmud of Ghazni attacked and crushed the ruler of Bhatinda, Sukhpal.
- Ghazni attacked Nagarkot in the hills of Punjab in 1011 AD.
- Mahmud invaded the royal kingdom of Anandapala and defeated him at the Battle of Wahind in the Hind Shahi capital near Peshawar in 1013 AD.
- Mahmud of Ghazni captured Thanesar in 1014 AD.
- Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Kashmir in 1015 AD.
- It invaded Mathura in 1018 AD and defeated a coalition of rulers, including a ruler named Chandra Pal.
- Mahmud Ghaznavi conquered Kanauj in 1021 AD by defeating Chandel Gaur, the ruler of Kanauj.
- In 1023 AD, Mahmud Ghazni attacked Gwalior and occupied it.
- Mahmud of Ghazni attacked the Somnath temple in 1025 AD to loot and collect the property inside the temple.
- At the time of his last invasion (1030), Mahmud of Ghaznavi died of malaria.
Why did Mahmud Ghaznavi invade India?
He was attracted by the great wealth of India. That is why he attacked India one after the other. It also added a religious dimension during the invasion of India. Ghazni wanted to earn a name as “Idol Toad” by destroying the temples of Somnath, Kangra, Mathura, and Jwalamukhi.
Impact of Ghaznavi’s invasions on India
Although Ghaznavi’s invasions did not have any lasting political impact on India. But these invasions of Mahmud exposed the flaws in the war strategies of the Rajput kings of India. This further showed that there was no political uniformity in India and this called for more attacks in the future.