Boris Johnson: Ex. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom - Online History

Boris Johnson: Ex. Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

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Alternate title: Alexander Boris de Pfeiffel Johnson 

Born: June 19, 1964 (age 58) New York City New York

Title / Office: Prime Minister (2019-), United Kingdom

Political Affiliation: Conservative Party

Early Life and Career as a Journalist


   Johnson spent his childhood in New York, London and Brussels before entering boarding school. He received a scholarship while studying at Eton College, after which he studied classics at Balliol College in Oxford, as well as being president of the Oxford Union at the college. After working briefly as a management consultant, Johnson began his career in journalism.

He started as a reporter for The Times in 1987 but was fired for coining a quote. He then began working for The Daily Telegraph, where he worked as a correspondent covering the European Community (1989–94) and later as an assistant editor (1994–99).

In 1994 Johnson became a political columnist for The Spectator, and in 1999 he was named editor of the magazine, a position he held until 2005.

 Election to parliament


In 1997 Johnson was elected to the House of Commons as the Conservative candidate for Clyde South but lost decisively to the incumbent Martin Jones of the Labor Party. Soon after, Johnson began appearing on a variety of television shows, beginning with the BBC talk program Have I Got News for You in 1998.

His bumbling demeanor and sometimes derogatory remarks made him a perennial favorite on British talk shows. Johnson ran for parliament again in 2001, this time winning the contest in the Henley-on-Thames constituency.

Although he continued to appear frequently on British television programs and became one of the country’s most recognizable politicians, Johnson’s political rise was threatened on several occasions.

He was forced to apologize to the City of Liverpool following the publication of an insensitive editorial in The Spectator, and in 2004 he was sacked as shadow arts minister after rumors of an affair between Johnson and a journalist surfaced. Despite such public rebuke, Johnson was re-elected to his parliamentary seat in 2005.

Mayor of London


Johnson entered the election for Mayor of London in July 2007, challenging Labor incumbent Ken Livingstone. During a hard-fought election, he overcame the perception that he was a gaffe-prone and inattentive politician by focusing on crime and transportation issues.

On 1 May 2008, Johnson won a narrow victory, seen by many as a rejection of the Gordon Brown-led National Labor government. Early the following month, Johnson resigned his MP and promised to carry out a campaign..

Johnson was re-elected mayor in 2012, besting Livingstone again. His victory was one of the few bright spots for the Conservative Party in midterm local elections, losing more than 800 seats in England, Scotland and Wales.

Continuing his political career, Johnson continued to write. His output as a writer includes Lend Me Your Ears (2003), a collection of essays; Seventy-two virgins (2004), a novel; and The Dream of Rome (2006), A Historical Survey of the Roman Empire.

In 2014 he added The Churchill Factor: How One Man Made History, which was described by one reviewer as Winston Churchill’s “breathless romp through life and times”.

 

 Return to Parliament, the Brexit referendum, and the unsuccessful search for a Conservative leadership

Johnson returned to Parliament in 2015, winning the West London seat of Uxbridge and South Ruislip, in an election in which the Conservative Party won its first clear majority since the 1990s. He retained his position as Mayor of London, and the victory fueled speculation that he would eventually challenge Prime Minister David Cameron for the leadership of the Conservative Party.

However, some critics alleged that Johnson’s personal political ambitions led him to be less interested and less involved in his job as mayor than in self-promotion.

Before stepping down as mayor—after choosing not to run for re-election in 2016—Johnson became the lead spokesman for the “Quit” campaign in a national referendum on June 23, 2016, on whether the United Kingdom should remain in the European Union. a member of.

In that capacity, he faced Cameron, the foremost proponent of Britain remaining in the EU, and criticized him for comparing the EU’s efforts to unify Europe to those made by Napoleon I and Adolf Hitler. came under the sway of

When all votes in the referendum were counted, about 52 percent of those contesting the election had opted for Britain to leave the European Union, causing Cameron to announce his imminent resignation as prime minister.

 He said his successor should oversee negotiations with the European Union on Britain’s withdrawal and would step down before the Conservative Party conference in October 2016. Many observers believed it was now paving the way for Johnson’s ascent to party leadership and premiership. ,

On the morning of late June when he was ready to officially announce his candidacy, however, Johnson was let down by his key aide and potential campaign chairman, Michael Gove, the Justice Secretary. Gove, who had worked with Johnson on the “Leave” campaign, concluded that Johnson “could not provide leadership or build the team for further work” and, instead, endorsed Johnson’s candidacy. announced his own.

 The British media were quick to see the betrayal of Shakespeare’s proportions in a political drama involving Cameron, Johnson, and Gove, whose families were close and who moved up the Conservative Party ranks together. When he left, Gove took several of Johnson’s leading lieutenants with him, and Johnson quickly withdrew his candidacy, concluding that the party no longer had enough support to win his leadership.

Tenure as foreign secretary


When Theresa May became leader of the Conservative Party and prime minister, she named Johnson her foreign secretary. Johnson retained his seat in the House of Commons in a snap election called for June 2017 until May, and he remained Foreign Secretary when May lost his legislative majority in that election after the Conservatives lost their legislative majority and formed a minority government in his cabinet. shuffled.

In April 2018, Johnson defended May’s decision to join the United States and France in strategic airstrikes against the Syrian president’s regime. Bashar al-Assad in response to evidence that he had used chemical weapons again on his own people. Opposition parties were criticizing the May government’s use of force without prior approval from Parliament.

Johnson himself was moved in some quarters for statements made in relation to an incident in March 2018 in which a former Russian intelligence officer, who had worked as a double agent for Britain, died in Salisbury, England, with his daughter. was found unconscious.

 Investigators believed the pair had been exposed to “Novichok”, a complex nerve agent developed by the Soviet Union, but Johnson was accused of misleading the public by saying that Britain’s top military laboratory had determined that the Novichok used in the attack had come from Russia; The Defense Science and Technology Laboratory had actually only identified the substance as Novichok.

Nonetheless, the British government was confident enough about the possibility of Russia’s complicity in the attack that it expelled about two dozen Russian intelligence operatives who were operating in Britain under diplomatic cover. In May 2018 Johnson was the target of a prank – also perpetrated by Russia – when a telephone conversation was recorded between him and a pair of individuals, one of whom pretended to be the new prime minister was fooled of Armenia.

 While all these developments unfolded, Johnson remained a consistent advocate of a “tough” Brexit as May’s government struggled to work out the details of its exit strategy for its talks with the EU.

Johnson publicly (and not always deftly) cautioned May not to give up British autonomy in an effort to maintain close economic participation in the common market. When May called her cabinet at Checkers on July 6, 2018, the prime minister’s country retreated, to try to reach a nuts-and-bolts consensus on its Brexit plan, with Johnson reportedly seriously involved. Was adamant.

Nonetheless, by the end of the gathering, he was joined by other cabinet members in support of May’s soft approach to Brexit. However, after Brexit Secretary David Davies resigned on 8 July, he said he could not continue as Britain’s chief negotiator with the EU because May was “giving too far, too easily,” Johnson said. The next day followed, his resignation as a foreigner. Secretary. In his resignation letter, Johnson wrote in part:

    It has been more than two years since the British people voted to leave the European Union on a clear and unequivocal promise that if they did they would take back control of their democracy.

    They were told that they would be able to manage their own immigration policy, refund the amount of UK cash currently spent by the EU, and above all, that they would be able to live independently and for its people. Will be able to pass laws in his interest. Country.…

    That dream is dying, suffocating with unnecessary self-doubt.

I named long-serving Health Secretary Jeremy Hunt as Johnson’s replacement.

Claim for prime minister


Meanwhile, Johnson has remained a constant critic of May’s efforts to push his version of Brexit through parliament. The House of Commons, in a closed-door meeting with rank-and-file members of the Conservative Party on March 27, 2019, takes office as prime minister after failing twice to win support for his plan in votes in May and resolved to leave.

Parliament approved his plan. This time, May’s promise of an imminent departure won Johnson’s support for his plan; However, once again it went down to defeat. After failing to garner enough support for his plan from the Conservatives, being unable to negotiate with the opposition, and being attacked by more and more members of his own party, May announced that he would be party leader on June 7. Will resign as Prime Minister, but will remain as caretaker Prime Minister. Until his party chose its successor.

This opened a campaign to replace him that found Johnson among 10 candidates who were placed on the parliamentary party in a series of votes, which eventually fielded four contenders: Boris Johnson, Jeremy Hunt, Michael Gove, and the Home Secretary. Sajid Javid.

After falling in the way of Gove and Javid in the latter vote, Johnson and Hunt stood as the final candidate in an election in which the party’s approximately 160,000 members were eligible to vote.

Some 87 percent of those eligible voters took part and extended Johnson to the lead when the results were announced on July 23. In winning 92,153 votes, Johnson secured about 66 percent of the vote, compared to nearly 34 percent for Hunt, who garnered 46,656 votes.

Johnson campaigned on a promise to leave the EU without a deal (“no-deal Brexit”) if the exit agreement with the EU was not changed to his satisfaction by 31 October 2019, amended The departure deadline was negotiated by May.

 In his victory speech, he pledged to “deliver Brexit, unite the country, and defeat Jeremy Corbyn” and then gave the friend a short acronym for his pledge to “activate the country.” Johnson officially became Prime Minister on 24 July.

After facing threats by Corbyn to hold a vote of confidence and then a sweeping effort by opponents of a no-deal Brexit to move towards legislation that would block the option to leave the European Union, Johnson on 28 August Delayed its resumption from its scheduled suspension for annual political party conventions, the Queen requested the prorogation of Parliament.

 The schedule called for Parliament to convene during the first two weeks of September and then to take a break until 9 October. Johnson reset the withdrawal date to October 14, two weeks before the Brexit deadline. The Queen’s acceptance of the request, a formality, was granted soon after it was submitted by Johnson.

Angry critics of Johnson’s initiative argued that he was seeking to limit debate and narrow the window of opportunity to take legislative action on the option of a no-deal departure. Johnson denied that this was his intention and emphasized his desire to move forward on Britain’s domestic agenda.

Opponents of a no-deal Brexit took the offensive on 3 September, as members of the opposition and 21 rebel Conservative MPs came together on a vote that allowed the House of Commons to temporarily usurp the government’s control over the legislative body’s agenda. given (as he had previously done during May’s tenure as prime minister).

The 328–301 vote was a humiliating defeat for Johnson, who retaliated by effectively expelling 21 dissident MPs from the Conservative Party. Controlling the agenda of the House of Commons allowed those opposed to a no-deal Brexit to set the stage for a vote on a bill that would mandate Johnson to request a delay for Brexit.

 Johnson announced he would call for a snap election, seeking to regain control of the narrative. Under the Parliament’s Fixed Terms Act, however, a prime minister must have the support of at least two-thirds of the House of Commons to conduct such an election when it is outside the body’s prescribed five-year terms, Which means Johnson would have to gain the support of the opposition for that vote.

The political drama escalated on 4 September, as the House of Commons voted 327-299 to force Johnson to request a delay in British withdrawal from the European Union until January 31, 2020, if by October 19, 2019, he was not presented either. Got the House of Commons to approve a compromise or no-deal Brexit on Brexit for Parliament’s approval.

By October Johnson was able to find common ground with the EU on a renegotiated agreement that was similar to May’s proposal but kept Northern Ireland aligned with the EU for at least four years before the end of the transition period. Replaced the backstop with the plan.

On 22 October the House of Commons approved Johnson’s revised plan in principle, but then quickly halted his attempt to push the agreement through formal parliamentary approval before the October 31 deadline.

Thus, Johnson was forced to ask the EU for an extension of the deadline, which was granted, and the deadline was reset to January 31, 2020. With a no-deal Brexit off the table, Corbyn indicated he would now support an early election. , which was scheduled for 12 December.

After three unsuccessful attempts to hold a snap election, Johnson was finally able to take his case to the people, and during the campaign, he promised to deliver Brexit by the new deadline. Although a solution to Johnson’s backstop loss seemed certain to lose him the support of the Democratic Unionist Party, pre-election opinion polls showed the Conservatives to be the likely winner and ready to gain seats.

When the votes were counted, the Conservative’s projected victory proved more decisive than anyone expected. By winning 365 seats, the party increased its presence in the House of Commons from 47 seats and registered its most impressive victory in a parliamentary election since 1987. With a solid majority, Johnson was ready to guide his preferred version of Brexit. finish line.

In his address to the British people at the end of 31 January 2020, as the UK formally leaves the European Union, Johnson said:

    It is the moment when the dawn breaks and the curtain is lifted on a new act in our great national drama.

Battling the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic


Although the formal withdrawal had taken place, the final details regarding a new trade deal between the UK and the EU were yet to be hammered out, and the agreement deadline was set for December 31, 2020. Perhaps not surprisingly, those talks also proved lengthy and often bitter; However, Johnson was able to announce that a settlement had been reached on 24 December.

The 2,000-page agreement specified that there would be no limits or taxes on goods traded between the UK and EU parties, but there would now be a slew of extensive paperwork. for such transactions and transportation of goods.

In addition, the freedom to live, work, and study in each other’s countries, which UK citizens and EU citizens enjoyed, would end for many. The fishing rights, which proved to be a particularly important point in the negotiations, were agreed upon for a period of only five years.

 As important as these talks were, they left behind the horrific public health crisis that had dominated the events of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic—not only in the UK and the European Union but across the world. Which probably originated in China, where the first cases were reported in December 2019.

In keeping with controversial guidance from its key scientific advisers that the best way to limit the long-term effects of the pandemic would be to allow the virus to spread naturally and thus generate “herd immunity”, the Johnson government initially adopted a low-key approach to dealing with the pandemic, in contrast to aggressive measures taken in the rest of the world.

By mid-March 2020, as COVID-19, the potentially fatal disease caused by the virus, began to spread rapidly in the UK, the fallacy of this approach had become apparent, and the government had implemented social distancing and mask-wearing requirements. Had done it. A lockdown that included the closure of schools, pubs, restaurants, and other businesses.

The gravity of the crisis became very personal for Johnson when he contracted the virus in late March, became so ill he had to be hospitalized, and spent three nights in an intensive care unit, risking his life. When he was incapacitated, Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab led the government.

 After Johnson returned to his post, the grateful prime minister in his Easter message to the country on 12 April thanked the health care workers who saved his life, calling on Britons to adhere to social-distancing measures. Called upon, and praised the national health. 

Service (NHS) for crisis response:

 

    We will win because our NHS is the beating heart of this country. This is the best in this country. It is invincible. It is driven by love.

In the following year, Johnson introduced and canceled a series of stay-at-home orders (which varied by region) as the spread of the disease further subsided in Britain. Although many observers were criticizing Johnson’s slow, unsteady response to the crisis, British scientists, aided by government funding, made historically rapid progress on the vaccine front.

Notably, the University of Oxford and the Anglo-Swedish pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca developed and successfully tested one of the first effective vaccines. In addition, in December 2020 the UK became the first country to approve and deploy a Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, with it quickly launching a national immunization program.

 Nonetheless, as of March 2021, the UK had suffered more COVID-19-related deaths (about 126,000) than all four other countries (the United States, Brazil, Mexico, and India) – a situation that was made worse in September 2020. was given. The emergence of a new, more easily spreadable form of the disease in Britain (b.1.1.7).
 

“Partygate”


The Johnson government’s response to the pandemic would grab headlines for very different reasons starting in late November 2021, when reports began to emerge that members of the prime minister’s cabinet and staff, as well as Johnson himself, had attended parties in the pandemic. who violated the prohibition. On social functions prescribed by the Govt.

Dubbed “Partygate,” the resulting scandal hinged not only on the nature of the alleged violations but also on Johnson’s initial insistence that guidelines issued by the government were “followed at all times.” After reports emerged about a growing number of illegal social gatherings on Downing Street during lockdowns imposed in 2020 and 2021 due to the public health crisis, Johnson apologized for attending a party at which drinks were served, But he said he had thought a work event was going to happen.

A picture of a culture of excessive workplace drinking in Johnson’s classroom and a prime minister who misled parliament with his claim that no epidemiological rules had been broken – the last was a crime historically referred to as resignation. was called for.


 The case was investigated in Parliament by senior civil servant Sue Grey at the end of January 2022, albeit in a shortened and modified form so as not to compromise the investigation at several subsequent gatherings by the London Metropolitan Police. Gray indicated that “there were failures of leadership and decision-making by the Cabinet Office in different parts of Number 10 and at different times” and that “some events should not have been allowed to happen” while “other events should not have happened”. allowed to develop.

Johnson again apologized to Parliament and was even outright rebuked, even by the Conservatives, some of whom were members of the opposition calling for the prime minister to step down. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine on 24 February, which united most of the West in support of Ukraine, seemed to deter the threat to Johnson’s stay in office, as many Britons felt that Russia’s invasion of Europe would be a threat to Europe. The moment of existential crisis had come.

 This is not the time for a leadership change. Nevertheless, Johnson’s grip on power remained uncertain, especially after a police investigation, Johnson was given a “fixed penalty notice” in April and fined for breaches of rules related to the pandemic, making him the first British in living memory. Became Prime Minister. The law has been broken.

By the first week of June, the outcome of Gray’s (in May) release of the full report and growing dissatisfaction with the prime minister’s role in the Partygate scandal prompted at least 54 Conservative members of parliament to send letters to the party’s 1922 was. Committee requesting Johnson’s resignation. Many of them worried that Johnson’s damaged brand would prove to be a liability in the next scheduled parliamentary election, nearly two years on.

On the evening of June 6, 359 Conservative members of parliament took part in a secret ballot of confidence in Johnson, with the number of written requests required to force a vote on the party’s leadership. To survive as a leader, Johnson needed to receive 180 affirmative votes. She got 211, but the 148 lawmakers who voted against her constitute about 40 percent of the party’s representation in the House of Commons and exceed the number of 133 lawmakers who voted against Theresa May in a trust vote in her leadership in 2018. Voted.

Resignation for some six months. Under party rules, Johnson’s leadership could not be voted on for another year, but, as Britain grappled with increased fuel and groceries prices, the Labor Party’s public acceptance increased in preference voting. Which was not good for Johnson. In addition, he publicly lost the support of prominent Tories such as Jeremy Hunt and William Hague.

Article sources: ww.britannica.com

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