A political party is a group of people who’s objective is to contest elections and work for the purpose of obtaining political power in the government. Keeping in view the collective interest of the society, these groups decide on some policies and related programs. Although the collective interest is a controversial idea, different people in society have different interests and ideologies. Keeping this in mind, political parties want to get power by declaring their policies as best to get maximum support.
Thus we can say that political parties also show the basic political division of the society. If we assume that political parties are fair then it will be wrong, because political party belongs to one part of the society. Therefore, the policies and attitudes of that party are inclined towards that particular section of the society/community. A political party is identified by its symbol, leader, and supporter.
In this way, when some people form an organized group for the fulfillment of political ideas and objectives, then such a group or union is called a political party. We can also define it in this way “Political party is an organization of people who try to establish their authority over the governing authority of the country in order to implement their policies, ideas, and principles.”
definition of political parties
Different scholars have given different definitions of the political party which are as follows:
According to Edmund Burke- “Political party is an organized group of such persons who want to work in the interest of the people and the country through collective efforts by uniting collectively on some principle/idea.”
According to Bryce – “Political parties are essential. No free democratic nation can run without them. No one has shown how democracy will succeed without it.”
According to Gilchrist, “Political party is an organized group of citizens who share common interests and political ideology and try to take over the government by acting as a political unit”.
Pro. According to Laski, “By political party, we mean that organized group of citizens who act as a political organization.”
What are the functions of political parties?
1- Political parties participate in elections. Various political parties participate in the election process in most democratic countries. The election process is conducted in different ways in different countries. The Election Commission gives recognition to political parties.
2- Political parties present their policies and ideology to the public. Voters give their support to the political party whose policies and principles accept them.
3- Political parties participate in the process of law-making. Formal discussions take place during lawmaking. Laws are made by the legislature. The members of the ruling party take decisions according to their party.
4- Political parties form the government and run it. After gaining power, political parties appoint qualified ministers.
5- The parties which lose the elections control the ruling party in the roles of opposition, criticizing their policies and controlling their autocracy. Although the ruling parties misuse the law and send the opposition leaders to jail. This trend is very much in India today.
6-Political parties bring government schemes and welfare policies to the public. People trust politicians more than government officials and support them by trusting them.
Why are political parties needed?
Political parties play an important role in the smooth maintenance of the democratic system, constitution-making, government formation, and operation. Political parties are reflected differently in the institutions of any democratic system. Democracy often means political parties for common citizens. If we go to the remote backward and rural areas of the country and talk to the least educated people, then perhaps it comes to us that those people have information about the constitution and the form of government. is lacking. But they are completely familiar with political parties. Although his opinion about political parties is negative, he holds political parties responsible for social division and disharmony.